VIDEO CLIPS

  • Abominable Snowman - Real or Imagined? For more than 150 years, people have claimed to see a creature in the Himalayan Mountains which Sherpas call Yeti. Does such a creature (also dubbed the Abominable Snowman) really exist? Take a look at some claimed evidence of the Yeti by clicking on “Abominable Snowman” (in the first paragraph).


  • Acoustic Perfection - Amphitheater at Epidaurus: Twenty-five hundred years ago, ancient Greeks built an arena which still produces stunning, unamplified sound. If, for example, a matchstick is dropped in the center of the original stage, people sitting in the top row (fifty-five tiers high) can hear it. To examine this special place, click on “back in time,” in the last paragraph, and move the video clip forward to 4:45.


  • Africa, Before European Slave-Traders: What were trading relationships like between Europeans and Africans before slave-trading began? When did things change? Included in this chapter are video links to The Story of Africa, as told by Africans.


  • Agamemnon - Historical King or Homeric Legend: According to the Greek poet Homer, Agamemnon ruled Mycenae during the period we know as the Late Bronze Age. Did he participate in the Trojan War, as Homer writes? Click on “landscapes,” in the second paragraph, to learn more about this legendary king and the Greek city he ruled.


  • Agincourt, Battle of - British Victory: England’s king, Henry V, believed he had a claim to French territory. He waged a vicious battle against the French (in 1415) near the village of Agincourt (in northern France). To see a recreation of the battle, click on “deeds” in the second paragraph.


  • Agincourt, Battle of - On St. Crispin's Day: Henry V rallied his troops before the famous battle at Agincourt, fought between England and France in 1415. Shakespeare gave words to the English king - “We few, we happy few, we band of brothers” - which have been voiced, by many actors, in the succeeding centuries. Click on “words,” in the second paragraph to see one interpretation.


  • Aircraft - A1H: As the aircraft carrier USS Ranger (CV 4) was cruising off the Vietnam coast in February of 1965, America's mission in Southeast Asia changed as A1H Skyraiders scrambled for the first bombing run over North Vietnam. To see the planes, click on "A1H" in the last paragraph.


  • Ancient China - Music: To hear the haunting, traditional music of China, click on “ancient music” in the third paragraph.


  • Ancient Greece - Music: To hear an ancient Greek melody, played on a lyre, click on “lyre” (in the third paragraph).


  • Ancient Greece - Seven Wonders: At the dawn of European history, Greece led the way with ground-breaking innovations. From the acoustically perfect arena at Epidaurus (where fourteen thousand spectators can hear unamplified sound) to the towering Parthenon (in Athens), ancient Greeks created seven wonders. To learn what they are (and to see how the ancients did it), click on the links in the last paragraph.


  • Ancient Instruments - Harp Guitar: See (and hear) an ancient instrument, called the harp guitar, as it is used to play Bring a Torch, Jeannette, Isabella. To watch the video, click on “ancient instruments” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Anglo-Saxons - How They Lived: Anglo-Saxons came to Britain from other countries on the European continent. How did they live in their new land? To uncover what life in the Dark Ages might have been like, click on “heard the tale” (in the third paragraph).


  • Anglo-Saxons - Who Were They: Beowulf, an epic tale written in the Anglo-Saxon dialect, is a story about life in the Dark Ages. Who were the Anglo-Saxons? To discover something about them, click on the video links (in the fifth bullet) which begin with words spoken in Old English.


  • Anthony, Susan B. - Arrested for Voting: In 1872, Susan Anthony obtained a legal opinion which confirmed her belief that American women could vote in a presidential election. After she did so, she was promptly arrested and stood trial. To uncover what happened next, click on “could not appeal her case” (near the end of this chapter).


  • Anthony, Susan B. - Legacy: Near the end of her life, Anthony pleaded with Teddy Roosevelt - the American president who promised “a square deal” for all - to work for a constitutional amendment allowing women the right to vote. Although he listened respectfully, TR did nothing. Fourteen years after she died, however, Anthony’s sought-after amendment (the nineteenth) materialized. Click on “remembered,” in the last paragraph, to learn more.


  • Apollo 11 - Lunar Landing: On the 20th of July, 1969, one-fifth of the world’s population watched Neil Armstrong and Edwin (“Buzz”) Aldrin land on the moon. To see a compilation of historic footage and recreated scenes, click on “the lunar landing” links (in the sixth paragraph).


  • Apollo 13 - Launch, Explosion and Recovery: Scheduled as a moon mission, Apollo 13 instead developed a serious problem. Experts on the ground had to figure out how to get the crew safely back to Earth. To watch the original footage, click on the links for "extreme emergency conditions," in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Apollo 13 - Press Conference: Two days after their safe return to Earth, Apollo 13's crew held a press conference. To watch that original footage, in which Jim Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise describe what happened, click on the links (in their order of appearance) in the first sentence of the last paragraph.


  • Area 51 - Top Secret Location: Area 51, at Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada, is nicknamed “Dreamland.” People have long speculated whether alien research is conducted there. To see clips of an award-winning film which investigates Area 51, including interviews with individuals who once worked there, click on the links (in order) in the fourth paragraph.


  • Assassination - Archduke Franz Ferdinand: During a June 28, 1914 visit to Sarajevo, Franz Ferdinand (heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne) and his wife (Sophie) were shot by Gavrilo Princip (a member of the Black Hand Secret Society). The archduke’s death was the precipitating cause of World War One. Watch a documentary, combining historical footage and recreated scenes, by clicking on the links for “Their shocking deaths” (in the second paragraph).


  • Assassination - Romanov Family: Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia, was executed - with his family - at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg. Although the house has since been razed, you can see it in this historical film footage from the Library of Congress. Click on "Ekaterinburg," in the last paragraph.


  • Atlantis - Lost City: Was there once a city called Atlantis which disappeared into the sea? If so, where was it? Ever since Plato wrote about a circular city which was completely destroyed, people have wondered if his writings were true or allegorical. If there were such a place, might it have been destroyed by a volcano? Might that volcano have been located on an island near Santorini? A wall painting from the late Bronze Age, found on the remnants of that now-small island, appears to be very similar to the city which Plato describes. Is it Atlantis? Did the city, and its people, vaporize after sea water, mixing with hot lava, caused a violent explosion? Uncover interesting theories, and view some amazing sights, by clicking on “ancient,” in the last paragraph, and moving the video clip forward to 1:15.


  • Atomic Bomb Attack - Our Cities Must Fight: In 1951, the U.S. government commissioned a movie assessing the dangers of atomic warfare and its aftermath. Urging American citizens not to evacuate their cities and towns, in the event of attack, it includes such lines as: “Staying in a city after an atomic attack is not as dangerous as people think.” To watch journalists discuss that “it is pretty close to treason” to evacuate, in the event of a nuclear attack, click on “Our Cities Must Fight,” in the fourth paragraph.


  • Atomic Bomb - Original Test: On the 16th of July, 1945, members of the “Manhattan Project” tested a new device they had created. When that atomic bomb was detonated, its explosive force was roughly equivalent to 67,000,000 sticks of dynamite. To watch a recreation, click on “bomb was ready” (in the first paragraph).


  • Atomic Bomb - Reaction by Dr Oppenheimer: Many years after the first test of America’s atomic bomb, one of its creators - Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer - described his initial reaction to the weapon’s power. Click “on witnessing,” after the lead quote, to watch him say: “Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.”


  • Atomic-Bomb Survival - Civil Defense: Edward R. Murrow narrates a 1951 civil-defense film entitled Survival Under Atomic Attack. To see how unrealistically the dangers were portrayed in the 1950s, click on “effects of a bomb” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Avalanche - Disaster in the Making: What are the different types of avalanches? Thanks to NOVA On-line, you can view them from a safe distance. Click on NOVA, in the last paragraph, to see spectacular sights.


  • Aviation - Deadliest Aircraft Accident: On the 27th of March, 1977, two Boeing 747s approached each other on the same fog-shrouded runway. Attempting to leave the island of Tenerife, the planes collided when one aircraft took off without permission. Click on “facing each other,” in the third paragraph, to watch historical footage (plus recreated events) of the worst airline accident in aviation history.


  • Aviation - Survivors of Tenerife: Although 583 people died in the Tenerife crash, some individuals survived. Click on “point of no return,” in the next-to-last paragraph, to hear their stories.


  • Baroque Music - Corelli, Concerti Grossi, Opus 6: Baroque music is characterized by its non-stop pace. To hear an example, by the seventeenth-century composer Arcangelo Corelli, click on “baroque concertos” (in the first paragraph).


  • Beatrix Potter - Creator of Children's Tales: Who was Beatrix Potter? Did she use her real pets as models for story characters? Find out, by clicking on "affectionate companion" in the third paragraph. You will see a recreation of Beatrix and her real (and imaginative) world.


  • Beethoven, Ludwig van - Ninth Symphony: It is said that when Beethoven’s Ninth premiered in Vienna (on the 7th of May, 1824), the deaf maestro kept conducting even after the audience was cheering and applauding. Beethoven did not understand the profound impact of his new work until one of the soloists turned him around, to face the crowd. Click on links in the next-to-last paragraph to see the work performed by the Berlin Philharmonic (under the direction of Leonard Bernstein).


  • Beethoven, Ludwig van - Picture Biography: With the Cavatina from the String Quartet in B-Flat Major, Op. 130, playing in the background, see pictures from each stage of Beethoven’s life. Click on "He," in the second paragraph, to hear the work which moved its composer to tears.


  • Beethoven, Ludwig van - Seventh Symphony: Some lovers of classical music consider the second movement of Beethoven's Seventh to be one of the most beautiful pieces ever written. To see it performed by the Berlin Philharmonic (under the direction of Herbert Von Karajan who uses no music and keeps his eyes shut throughout), click on "the video" (at the end of the sixth paragraph).


  • Belene - Bulgarian Forced Labor Camp: In her book North to Freedom (also known as I am David), Anne Holms sets the stage at a Bulgarian forced labor camp - likely Belene - where children, as well as adults, perform heavy labor. To learn about this infamous camp, click on “Belene” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Beowulf - A Three-Dimensional Story: Robert Zemeckis, and his team, translated the epic poem into a three-dimensional, computer-animated film released in 2007. Why did he take that approach? To watch his explanation, click on “deadly battle” (in the last paragraph).


  • Beowulf - Epic Storytelling: What makes Beowulf a “work of great literature” and not just a good story? Click on “their traditions,” in the fifth paragraph, to uncover some of the reasons.


  • Beowulf - Hrothgar: One of the main characters in Beowulf, Hrothgar (the king) is played by Anthony Hopkins (in the 2007 film version of the epic). To see him describe what it was like to create that role, click on “Hrothgar” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Beowulf - Long Halls: Part of the Beowulf epic is set in a Danish long hall called “Heorot.” To learn more about these important places, click on “long halls” (in the second paragraph). To virtually tour one, click on “virtual tour” (in the sixth).


  • Beowulf - Performed in Old English: The sole surviving manuscript of Britain’s national epic, about a Dark Ages hero, is now maintained at the British Library. To see a section of the work performed in its original language - a forerunner of modern English - click on Beowulf (immediately under the lead quote).


  • Beowulf: Reality and the Story: How does the reality of life, in Anglo-Saxon times, compare with the story of Beowulf? Click on “robbed a grave,” in the first paragraph, to see what experts think.


  • Berlin, Battle of - April, 1945: Germany’s capital city was poorly defended as the Soviet Army decimated Berlin during the final assault of the war in Europe. Click on the links, in the second paragraph, to watch historical footage of the battle.


  • Berlin Wall - Fall of: On the 11th of November, 1989, the first slab of the concrete wall dividing Berlin was removed. By the 22nd of December, that year, the Brandenburg Gate was reopened. An international orchestra, directed by Leonard Bernstein, celebrated the events by performing Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony (the “Ode to Joy”) on Christmas Day, 1989. It is said that one hundred million people, in twenty-two countries, heard the broadcast. To watch it, click on the links in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Black Death - Medieval Scourge: In the fourteenth century, bubonic plague swept through Europe. Where did it originate? How was it spread? To discover more, click on "reached Europe" (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Black Hawk Down - Actual Raid: A movie, Black Hawk Down, was made about a failed raid in Mogadishu, Somalia during early October of 1993. The Pentagon has released the video of the actual raid. To see it, click on "mission" in the first paragraph.


  • Black Hawk Down - Historical Footage: View a documentary of the real events, including interviews with the actual Rangers and Delta-Force members who fought in the battle of Mogadishu. Learn about the impact on their lives by clicking on “at serious risk” in the first paragraph.


  • Black Hawk Down - Hostage Release: Never sure whether he would live or die, Mike Durant was released from captivity after eleven days. To hear his story, click on “he wasn’t sure,” in the fifth paragraph, and move the video forward to 1:13:17.


  • Bog Bodies - Clues to Iron Age: Iron-Age mummies, naturally formed in peat bogs thousands of years ago, provide evidence of life during ancient times. To learn how human remains turn into peat-bog mummies, click on “How could” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Bombs and Bombers - World War II: What was it like to drop bombs on cities during the Second World War? What was it like to be bombed in cities like Coventry, England and Lubeck, Germany? See for yourself by clicking on "war was declared" in the fourth paragraph. When you get to the "World War Two Movies" link, click on "Launch the Animation," then select "Bombers and the Bombed."


  • Bonaparte, Napoleon - Biography: Napoleon was a Corsican who became Emperor of France. What was his background? How did he achieve greatness? Learn more by clicking on “Napoleon,” in the third paragraph.


  • Bonaparte, Napoleon - Egyptian Campaign: Before he was thirty, Napoleon greatly expanded French rule in Europe. Married to Joséphine de Beauharnais, he planned to conquer Britain by first conquering Egypt. Click on “his dream,” in the third paragraph, to discover his quest for empire.


  • Bonaparte, Napoleon - Famous Battles: Considered by some to be a military genius, Napoleon was victorious in key battles such as Austerlitz and Lodi. Take a look by clicking on “backdrop” in the last paragraph.


  • Boneparte, Napoleon - Prelude to Waterloo: Forced to abdicate, Napoleon was sent to the island of Elba. Within ten months he returned to Paris, welcomed by many. His next military campaign, during “The Hundred Days” when he once again ruled France, would end in Belgium at a place called Waterloo. Click on “results,” in the first paragraph, to learn more.


  • Bonaparte, Napoleon - Russian Campaign: Ending his marriage to Josephine, Napoleon married Marie Louise of Austria. They had a son whom his father called “King of Rome.” Making a terrible decision to invade Russia, Napoleon and his army embarked upon a disastrous campaign. To learn what happened, click on “ghastly” in the first paragraph.


  • Bonaparte, Napoleon - Triumphs and Humiliations: While in Egypt, Napoleon’s army found the Rosetta Stone, leading to decryption of Egyptian hieroglyphics. His navy, however, was defeated by Lord Nelson and the British fleet at the Battle of the Nile. At home, Napoleon became dictator of France where he restored post-Revolution order. A grateful nation made him emperor and, during the coronation ceremony, Napoleon crowned himself. Click on “height of his power” (in the third paragraph).


  • Bonaparte, Napoleon - Waterloo, Battle of: Napoleon Bonaparte and his Grand Army were defeated by a coalition of forces led by Arthur Wellesley (the first Duke of Wellington) and Gebhard von Blücher (of Prussia). See highlights of the battle by clicking on “ended forever” (in the fifth paragraph).


  • Britannic - Sinking of: His Majesty’s Hospital Ship, Britannic, was on her way to pick-up thousands of wounded people from the port of Lemnos during World War I. Titanic’s sister ship, she most likely struck a mine (although it’s possible she was torpedoed) and sank, in the Aegean Sea, within fifty-five minutes. See the Britannic by clicking on “55 minutes” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Bronze Age - Shipwreck Discovery: A ship from the Late Bronze Age, located in about fifty meters (one hundred fifty feet) of water not far from the ancient city of Troy, carried enough metal ingots to make eleven tons of bronze. Click on “described,” in the second paragraph, to learn about this important discovery.


  • Captain Corelli’s Mandolin - Pelagia’s Song: To see a clip from the movie, featuring Pelagia’s Song (played on a mandolin), click on “the film” (in the last paragraph).


  • Carnarvon, 5th Earl of - George Herbert: Patron of the expedition which found the tomb of King Tut, George Herbert - the 5th Earl of Carnarvon - died before Tutankhamun’s treasures were fully examined. At the “precise moment” of Lord Carnarvon’s death, in Egypt, other “spooky” things happened. To learn about them, and to see King Tut’s tomb, click on “rediscovered” (in the last paragraph).


  • Ceausescu, Nicolai - Executed Leader of Romania: On the day Germany celebrated its reunification - December 25, 1989 - a Romanian military court hastily tried, and executed, Romania’s president. To learn what happened to Nicolai Ceausecu, and his wife Elena, click on “revolted” (in the second paragraph).


  • Challenger - Last Words: To hear the last publically transmitted words from Challenger’s crew, click on "last response" in the sixth paragraph.


  • Challenger - Liftoff and Explosion: See NASA's movies of the Challenger's crew, its spectacular liftoff and the fatal explosion by clicking on "pattern of smoke" in the fifth paragraph.


  • Challenger - O-Ring Failure Exposed: During a televised hearing on the Challenger explosion, Dr. Richard Feynman cross-examined a key NASA employee. With a simple experiment, he revealed why the shuttle failed. Click on "lack of resilience," in the next-to-last paragraph, to view a combination of historical footage and recreated scenes.


  • Challenger - Redesign of O-Rings: Following his work on the Rogers Commission, Dr. Richard Feynman told the press that "nature cannot be fooled" when it comes to properly designing the shuttle. To learn about Challenger's aftermath, click on "words of Dr. Feynman" in the last paragraph.


  • Challenger - Warnings Ignored: Engineers at Morton Thiokol urged a flight delay because of cold temperatures at launch time. Their company managers did not follow that advice. Click on "warned Morton Thiokol," in the third paragraph, to see recreated scenes and interviews with the engineers.


  • Charlotte's Web - Wilbur Meets Charlotte: See an extended clip from the 2006 movie as Wilbur meets Charlotte and learns a new word - "salutations." Click on "audio recording," in the third paragraph. When you are at the link, look for "See this scene in the movie."


  • Chernobyl, Nuclear Accident and Fallout: On April 26, 1986 a nuclear reactor, located at the Chernobyl power station, exploded. The mishap sent a cloud of radioactivity over much of Europe. To learn what happened, and to examine the disaster's continuing effects, click on the links in the third sentence of the first paragraph.


  • Child Labor - Victorian Britain: Children, as young as five, worked in Britain at the start of Queen Victoria's reign. To learn what they did, and how poorly they were treated and paid, click on "governesses" in the second paragraph. When you are at the BBC link, select "Learning" in the "Work" section. When you arrive at the next page, click on the projector to watch the movie.


  • Children Evacuate London - World War II: Beginning September 1st, 1939 - two days before war was declared - the British government began the largest mass evacuation of people in the country's history. See a video of children leaving London, narrated by eyewitnesses, by clicking on "war was declared" in the fourth paragraph. When you get to the "World War Two Movies" link, click on "Launch the Animation," then select "Evacuees."


  • Chimpanzees - Jane Goodall and Gombe National Park: Is it possible for "wild chimpanzees" to interact with humans? Take a look by clicking "on film" in the last paragraph of this chapter.


  • China, Ancient - Nomadic Threats: To protect themselves from raiding nomadic tribes, people in ancient China built walls around their homes, around their towns and around their country. There are so many walls in China that if they were added together they would circle the Earth twice. To learn more about it, click on “China’s walls” (in the third paragraph).


  • China, First Emperor - Documentary: In 247 B.C., a thirteen-year-old prince named Ying Zheng became the ruler of Qin (Ch’in), one of seven disparate states in a land we know as China. Within twelve years, his armies had crushed most of the neighboring states. Achieving his goal of unifying the country, Ying Zheng became China’s First Emperor. Thousands of years later, he is still known for many things including the Great Wall and the Terra Cotta Soldiers. Click on “his deeds,” in the fifth paragraph, to learn more.


  • China - Golden Age: As the Han Dynasty grew wealthy, China’s Great Wall repelled invaders (like Attila the Hun), turning them westward. As Rome, and the West, endured the Dark Ages, China flourished. The Tang Dynasty became the richest, and most powerful, in China’s history. To discover some aspects of life then, click on “Jade Gate” (in the eighth paragraph).


  • China - Terra Cotta Army: The First Emperor of China began work on his mausoleum soon after he became king of Qin (at age thirteen). By the time he died (at age fifty), more than 700,000 forced workers had created an underground city and army for him. The human cost of the building project was high. Three years after the emperor’s death, rebels broke in and massively damaged the terra cotta soldiers. Archeologists have also found evidence that young laborers, in the prime of their life, were killed because they knew the secrets of the mausoleum. To explore what happened more than two thousand years ago, click on “city of the dead” (in the third-to-last paragraph).


  • Chopin's Nocturne in C Sharp Minor - played by "The Pianist": The award-winning film, The Pianist, is about Wladyslaw Szpilman who survived the horrors of Warsaw's bombing during World War II. Szpilman was playing Chopin's famous nocturne, in a live radio broadcast, when the bombing occurred. To see him play the same piece, later in his life, click on "played" in the third paragraph.


  • Civil Rights - Eyes on the Prize: Watch video clips, totaling about two hours of viewing, from the PBS American Experience series Eyes on the Prize. Click on “civil rights,” in the last paragraph, to access the video-clip index.


  • Colosseum - Rome’s Arena: To learn the story of the Roman Colosseum, and its inaugural games (in 80 AD), go to the last paragraph and click on the first five links (in their order of appearance).


  • Colossus of Rhodes - Wonder of the Ancient World: Most likely standing where a medieval castle now overlooks the harbor at Rhodes, a colossal statue of the sun god, Helios, was a wonder of the ancient world. The giant bronze statue stood for nearly a century, until an earthquake brought it, in pieces, to the ground. To examine how it was built, and what happened to its remains, click on “Archaic Period” (in the last paragraph).


  • Columbia - Debris Strikes the Orbiter: About eighty-two seconds into Columbia’s last mission, a piece of insulation from the external fuel tank dislodged and fell away, striking the orbiter’s left wing. To see what NASA managers discovered, the day after launch, click on “broke loose” in the third paragraph.


  • Columbia - Finding the Black Box: About 84,000 pieces of shuttle debris fell to Earth, but investigators needed to locate the orbiter’s flight-data recorder. After it was finally found, in an already-searched area, its data-rich information helped investigators to piece together why Columbia exploded. To watch that part of the story, click on “unique information” in the first bullet.


  • Columbia - Last Transmission: On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia exploded during re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere. Click on "exploded," in the last paragraph, to hear the crew's last transmission.


  • Columbia - Liftoff: During Columbia's liftoff, on 16 January 2003, pieces of foam insulation from the external tank broke away at 82 seconds into the mission. See Columbia's launch by clicking on "Liftoff," in the fifth paragraph.


  • Columbia - Recreating Events: Following the loss of Columbia, NASA’s investigation team recreates what must have happened. Click on “by,” in the fourth paragraph, to see highlights of their work and animations explaining their findings.


  • Columbia - Report of Investigation: After learning that insulation from the external fuel tank may have hit the shuttle, some NASA managers requested photos of the orbiter. Their requests were denied. Click on “shuttle disintegrated,” in the sixth paragraph, to learn about the investigation and to see interviews with two astronaut family members.


  • Columbia - Sensors Go Offline: Unknown to the astronauts, orbiter sensors were going offline while observers in California recorded something falling away from the shuttle. People in Texas called their local sheriff when they saw debris hurtling to the ground. When it appeared the mission was lost, NASA’s flight director gave the command: “Lock the doors.” To watch actual footage and recreated scenes, click on “the last transmission” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Columbia - Simulation Damages Wing: Investigating why Columbia exploded during re-entry, NASA simulated foam insulation striking a section of shuttle wing at liftoff speed. When the experiment produced a sixteen-inch gash in the orbiter wing, we can hear the collective gasp of onlookers. Click on "struck," in the third paragraph.


  • Comets - Composition: What are comets? What is their composition? How are they formed? Take a look by clicking on “objects” in the first paragraph.


  • Comets - Deep Impact: To learn more about comets, from an “up close and personal” viewpoint, NASA sent a small spacecraft called IMPACTOR to visit a comet called Tempel 1. After traveling 268 million miles (that’s 431 million kilometers), IMPACTOR crashed into Tempel 1. The events were transmitted to earth by a spacecraft named FLYBY (which had launched IMPACTOR). To see what happened, click on “animated recreation” (in the seventh paragraph).


  • Comets - Geology: After NASA’s deep-impact probe collided with the comet Tempel 1, on the 4th of July in 2005, the science of cometary geology was born. To learn more about this new field, click on “cometary geology” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Comets - How They Work: Comets appear to travel through space followed by a tail. Why is that? What is the tail? How is it formed? To discover the answers, click on “mission” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Commodus, Roman Emperor - Assassinated: The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was killed by someone within his own circle. His death was depicted differently in Gladiator, a film about him. Click on “news of his death,” in the second paragraph.


  • Continental Drift - Scientific Theory: To explain how the Earth’s continents (which may have once been connected) moved apart, scientists have developed the theory of plate tectonics. Click on “continental drift,” in the sixth paragraph, to watch a video (with animations) which explains this theory.


  • Corelli, Arcangelo - Christmas Concerto: One of the most popular violinists of all time, Corelli was also a beloved seventeenth-century composer. His famous Christmas work is still played during the holiday season. To hear it, click on “Christmas Concerto” (in the first paragraph).


  • Crab Nebula - Moving Through Space: One of the most-studied objects in the sky, the Crab Nebula has fascinated people for hundreds of years. Scientists believe it is the remnants of a supernova - Chinese astronomers observed its explosion in 1054 - now propelled by a dynamic pulsar [PULSating stAR] at its core. NASA has created an image of the Crab Nebula by combining twenty-four separate exposures. Take a look by clicking on “the nebula” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Crop Circles - Real or Fake?: Crop circles, especially in parts of Britain, have fascinated people for years. Are they real or fake? If they are fake, how do hoaxers create them? Have a look by clicking on "to make" in the second paragraph.


  • Crystal Skulls - Mayan Legend: What is the legend of the thirteen crystal skulls (which is featured in the fourth Indiana Jones film)? Are these skulls fake - or - do they store vast amounts of information (just like computer chips do)? Click on “thirteen such skulls,” in the third paragraph, to learn more.


  • Cuban Missile Crisis - UN Confrontation: After providing proof that Soviet missiles were in Cuba, Adlai Stevenson (America’s ambassador to the United Nations) demanded an acknowledgment from the Soviet ambassador. When the issue was ignored, Stevenson famously said he would wait for an answer “until hell freezes over.” To see the confrontation, click on “refused to answer” (in the sixth paragraph).


  • Daedalus and Icarus - First to Fly: In Greek mythology, Daedalus and his son, Icarus, were able to fly. With wings made from bees’ wax and bird feathers, the two escaped King Minos and the labyrinth at Knossos. But Icarus, failing to heed his father’s warning not to fly too close to the sun, fell into the sea. To watch the story, click on the links (in their order of appearance) in the third paragraph.


  • Davis, Jefferson - Confederate President: Jeff Davis was President of the Confederate States of America (CSA). Who was he? To learn more about him, click on “Davis” (in the first paragraph).


  • Deadliest Shipwreck - Wilhelm Gustloff: The world’s deadliest shipwreck is also one of its least-known tragedies. Overcrowded with women and children, who had fled the advancing Soviet Army, the Gustloff was torpedoed by a Soviet submarine on the 30th of January, 1945. It is estimated that as many as ten thousand people died in the frigid waters of the Baltic Sea. Click on “the Gustloff disaster,” in the first paragraph, to watch historical footage coupled with recreated scenes.


  • Deadliest U.S. Disaster - Galveston in 1900: Completely unprepared for a massive hurricane, the island of Galveston, Texas was temporarily covered by the Gulf of Mexico in September of 1900. Sometimes known as Isaac’s Storm, the calamity remains the worst natural disaster in American history. To watch a documentary about the storm, explaining why it was so deadly, click on “memories so horrible” (in the last paragraph).


  • Delphi Oracle - Ancient Greece: Why did ancient Greeks believe that the Oracle of Delphi (known as the Pythia) was a medium through whom Apollo (one of their gods) spoke? Why did Plutarch, the ancient historian, write that the Oracle inhaled pneuma (sweet-smelling vapors) before she entered a prophecy-producing trance? Recent scientific findings, regarding the location of Mount Parnassus (where the Oracle spoke), tend to find reality among the myths and legends. Learn the story by clicking on “back in time” (in the last paragraph).


  • Depp, Johnny - On the Film Blow: To watch the actor discuss his highly praised role as George Jung, in the movie Blow, click on “George” (in the first line).


  • Dinosaurs - Americas During the Time of: Fossilized dinosaurs are found throughout the Americas. What might they, and the land, have looked like when they were alive? To see one interpretation, click on “so huge” (in the first paragraph).


  • Diplodocus - Jurassic-Era Dinosaur: Scientists believe that this plant-eating creature was the largest dinosaur of the Jurassic Age. Before they were full-grown, however, they were still subject to attack by predators. To see how that might have happened, click on “video recreation,” in the first paragraph. The clip is from the BBC’s Walking with Dinosaurs.


  • Dreamland: Award-Winning Documentary: Area 51, at Nellis Air Force Base in Nevada, is also called “Dreamland.” No-trespassing signs, warning that deadly force will be used if needed, have deepened the public’s suspicions about the purpose of this top-secret site. To see clips of the award-winning film Dreamland, including interviews with individuals who once worked at Area 51, click on the links (in order) in the fourth paragraph.


  • Duck and Cover - Warning Film:  In 1951, the American government, in consultation with the National Education Association, created a film advising young school children what to do in the event of a nuclear attack. To see it, click on “the 1951 film” (in the third paragraph).


  • Dunkirk - Evacuation of May, 1940: When trapped British soldiers were rescued from Dunkirk, Churchill called their escape "a miracle of deliverance." Learn what happened by clicking on "war was declared" in the fourth paragraph. When you get to the "World War Two Movies" link, click on "Launch the Animation," then select "Dunkirk."


  • Earth’s Interior - A Theory: Scientists have devised a theory about the Earth’s interior. To learn more about it, click on “Scientists believe,” in the next-to-last paragraph. It will take you to a video, with animation, from National Geographic.


  • Earthquakes - Their Causes: When the Earth’s tectonic plates move against each other, they can cause earthquakes. To see how that occurs, click on "Earthquakes can happen," in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Eisenhower, Dwight - Early Years: The future general and American president had humble beginnings in Texas. While at West Point, he cared more about sports than study. To learn of Ike’s early years, click on “General Dwight Eisenhower” in the last paragraph.


  • Electric Chair - Electrocution Simulation: William McKinley was president of the United States when he visited the Pan-American Exhibition in Buffalo during September of 1901. Leon Czolgosz had also traveled to Buffalo at the same time, but his purpose was to assassinate McKinley. Successful in his endeavor, Czolgosz was quickly sentenced to death. He was executed, by electric chair, at Auburn Prison the following month. Thomas Edison's company filmed a non-gruesome recreation of the execution, selling copies of the film for $24. The Library of Congress now has the film which also depicts Auburn Prison on the morning of the execution. To view Edison's movie, click on "recreation" - in the eighth paragraph - for QuickTime format and on "movie" for the RealAudioMedia version.


  • Elephants - African (Loxodonta africana): Elephants can run as fast as 25 miles an hour (40 kilometers) for short distances. See thirty-two movie clips of elephants, in various natural settings, by clicking on "African elephant" in the fourth paragraph.


  • Elephants - Asian (Elephas maximus): Asian elephants are slightly smaller than African elephants. They differ in several additional ways, including: smaller ears, flat forehead with two humps, more toes and toenails on fore and hind feet. Take a look at nineteen movies of Asian elephants in their natural habitat by clicking on "Asian elephant" in the fourth paragraph.


  • Emperor Penguins - March of the Penguins: Stars of the popular movie, March of the Penguins, Emperor Penguins live in Antarctica. Their pre-hatched eggs are incubated by males. Click on “Penguins,” in the fifth paragraph, to watch an interview with a camera man who filmed them.


  • Empires - China: When he was twenty-nine, the ruler of Qin sent one million soldiers to crush resistance in six neighboring states. Making his move with a new kind of army, and a new approach to war (including endless swarms of arrows), Ying Zheng was victorious. To learn how he did it, click on “many achievements,” in the third paragraph, then watch a video clip based on ancient records and recreated scenes.


  • Ending Britain’s Slave Trade: The world’s first national public-relations campaign took place in Britain as abolitionists and politicians mobilized forces (click on “change the mind” in the penultimate paragraph) to convince the British public that slave-trading was wrong.


  • English Civil War - Why Did it Happen?: To hear concise summaries of events which led to Britain's civil war, click on "such wars" in the third paragraph. When you get to the link, look for "video overview" on the top left side.


  • Enigma Machine - German Codes in WWII: One of Germany’s important assets during the first part of the war was a small keyboard machine known as “Enigma.” What was it? How did it work? What made it so difficult to decode? See it in action by clicking on “constantly changed,” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Enigma Machine - Turing Bombe Deciphers Code: Working with Enigma decipher materials originally created by Polish code breakers, Alan Turing and his team at Bletchley Park (south of London) created a one-ton computer known as the “Turing Bombe.” Take a look at it by clicking on “decoding machines” in the fourth paragraph.


  • Escobar, Pablo - Avoiding Arrest: As 400 federal soldiers waited outside Escobar’s estate, he refused to give in to the Colombian government’s surrender demand. To watch that segment of “Killing Pablo,” based on the book by Mark Bowden, click on “Pablo” (in the last paragraph).


  • Escobar, Pablo - Herd of Hippos: When he was a drug lord, Escobar built a palatial estate in Colombia. In addition to other animals, he imported a herd of hippos. To find out what happened to them, click on “hippos,” in the first paragraph.


  • Escobar, Pablo - “Killing Pablo” A documentary (incorporating interviews, historical footage and recreated scenes) explains how one of the world’s most notorious criminals met his end. To watch key segments, click on “Escobar,” “escaping kingpin” and “the rooftop” (in the second and third paragraphs).


  • Evacuation of Britains' Children - WWII: The British government evacuated thousands of children from London at the beginning of World War II. From the British National Archives, see video clips of children waiting to leave, setting off by train, arriving at their destinations and going to war-time homes. Click on "evacuations" in the third paragraph.


  • Everest - Fatal Storm of 1996: After reaching the summit of the world’s tallest mountain (on the 10th of May), three climbing teams were overwhelmed by a fast-moving, ferocious storm. For those trapped on Everest, there would be no way down. To watch a clip from the PBS documentary, click on “danger” (in the first paragraph).


  • Everest - Hillary and Norgay Scale the Summit: In 1953, Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay were the first two people to scale the summit of Mt. Everest, the world’s highest mountain. Click on “this video,” near the end of the third paragraph, to view historic footage coupled with recreated film.


  • Everest - Mallory and Irvine: In June of 1924, George Mallory and Andrew (“Sandy”) Irvine hoped to reach the top of Mt. Everest. They were last seen by a team member when they were not far from the summit. Then a cloud enveloped them and they were never seen alive again. To discover more about them, and their famous expedition, click on “Mallory and Irvine” (in the first paragraph).


  • Everest - Trip to the Summit: Virtually join the 2000 British Army Expedition to Everest as its members scale the world’s highest mountain. Learn how they trained, discover their plan of attack (from the north side), follow their trek to the top and see their view from the highest point on Earth by clicking on “summit of Mt. Everest” (in the second paragraph).


  • Everest - Virtual Visit: Take a trip to Tibet’s Autonomous Region, meet Mongolian/Tibetan people who live near the top of the world, see Everest from the Earth’s highest monastery and generally enjoy the view by clicking on “virtual trip” (in the last paragraph).


  • ET - Do Extraterrestrials Exist? An individual allegedly held by aliens passed a lie detector test after he made his claims. So did his friends who say they were with him when he was abducted. Are their stories real or fake? To assess the evidence, click on “personal accounts” (in the last paragraph).


  • Famous Author Interviews - Quentin Bell: Most scholars agree that the best biography of Virginia Woolf was written by her nephew, Quentin Bell. See a video clip of an interview with Quentin Bell by clicking on "talks" in the last paragraph. After you have loaded the video, you will see a listing of many additional authors on the left side of the screen. Click on any of them for one-minute video segments.


  • FDR - Roosevelt's Last Address to Congress: President Roosevelt was a sick man after he returned from the Yalta Conference. In his last address to Congress - on March 1, 1945 - he also publicly acknowledged his crippling case of polio. See a video clip of the address by clicking on "result" in the last paragraph.


  • Feynman, Dr. Richard P. - BBC Interview: Before he died of cancer in 1988, Dr. Feynman was a popular Nobel Laureate who disliked honors. Click on "beloved," in the fourth paragraph, to watch a clip from the "The Pleasure of Finding Things Out."


  • Feynman, Dr. Richard P. - Physics Lectures: Click on "science lecturers," in the fourth paragraph, to watch Dr. Feynman deliver a series of four lectures.


  • First Emperor of China - Early Conquests: How was Ying Zheng, China’s first emperor, able to unify seven warring states which highly valued independence? Why were prisoners of war, at the time, buried alive? Click on “the opposition,” in the last paragraph, to watch a documentary clip of Ying Zheng’s early years. (The film is based on The Records of the Grand Historian and includes archival references and recreated scenes.)


  • First Emperor of China - Death and Human Suffering: Qin Shi Hunagdi ruled by fear. Slave laborers were taken from their families and forced to work on the emperor’s many building projects. Confucian scholars were buried alive. Dissent was not allowed, rebellions were crushed and the emperor’s own family suffered on his orders. Click on “severed heads” (in the third-from-last paragraph) to watch a documentary segment based on historical records and recreated scenes.


  • First Emperor of China - Legacy and Rebellion: Qin Shi Huangdi died when he was fifty years old, leaving a mixed legacy. On the one hand, he unified seven warring states to create China. On the other, his rule-by-fear caused countless deaths and smoldering resentment. To learn about his legacy, and what happened to China after his death, click on “First Emperor died” (in the sixth paragraph).


  • Forced Labor Camps - USSR: Deportees and prisoners were sent to forced labor camps in Siberia, and elsewhere, during the Stalinist era. Click on “Kolyma” (in the second paragraph) and “Vorkuta” (in the third) to virtually visit two former GULAG destinations.


  • Fossils - Dinosaur Bones: To see fossilized dinosaur bones, in situ, and to learn how those fossils can provide clues about continental drift, click on “fossilized” in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Franklin, Benjamin - Declaration of Independence: Selected as one of five men to write America’s Declaration of Independence, Franklin is responsible for one of the document’s key phrases: “We hold these truths to be self-evident.” To learn more, click on “became” in the third paragraph.


  • Franklin, Benjamin - Renaissance Man: Accomplished in so many fields, Franklin helped to change how Europeans viewed Americans during colonial times. Click on “Benjamin Franklin,” in the third paragraph, for an overview of his life.


  • Freud, Sigmund - Video Biography: When he was a boy, Freud’s doting mother called him her “Golden Child.” Who was this founder of psychoanalysis? What shaped his life? How (and why) did he develop his theories? To watch videos about his life and work, click on “broadcasts” (in the second paragraph).


  • Gas Attack - First Used in War: Chemical warfare - including the use of mustard gas - first occurred at Ypres, in April of 1915. To learn about it, click on "at war" in the first paragraph. Scroll down halfway to "The Human Experience." After you click on "World War One Movies," launch the animation. After it loads, click on "gas attack."


  • Galileo - Compass: Known for his telescope and theories about the planet Jupiter, Galileo also invented the compass, a key mathematical instrument. Find out more from the Institute and Museum of the History of Science, in Florence (Italy), by clicking on “well known” (in the first paragraph).


  • Galileo - Math and the Study of Motion: Although he contributed much to the study of astronomy, Galileo himself believed that his greatest work was applying math to the concept of motion. See how he approached the subject by clicking on “changed” (in the last paragraph). When the link is loaded, scroll down to find the video (on the right side of the page).


  • Galveston - Great Storm Damage: When the Great Storm of 1900 decimated Galveston, nuns did their best to save nearly one hundred orphans. Click on “efforts were futile,” in the third paragraph, to see what happened to the orphanage.


  • Genghis Khan - Early Years: As China’s Great Wall was falling into ruins, a baby was born whose right hand was clenching a blood clot. As that baby grew into manhood, nomadic hordes swept across Asia. By 1204, all the nomads were united under the “king of kings” - Genghis Khan. He and his men took no prisoners and often slaughtered entire cities. Looking south, the Khan desired China and its fertile land. To learn about his early years, click on “Golden Age” (in the ninth paragraph).


  • Genghis Khan - Emperor of All Emperors: How did Genghis Khan become one of the greatest conquerors of all time? To discover more about him, click on “Genghis Khan” (in the ninth paragraph).


  • Geoglyphs - A Virtual World Tour: Large drawings or images on the ground have existed for thousands of years. Many have mysterious origins or meanings. Click on “geoglyphs in the world,” in the last paragraph, to see some of the most famous.


  • Germany, Invasion by Soviet Army: With Berlin as their ultimate destination, Soviet troops crossed the Oder River in January of 1945. Click on “terror of war,” in the last paragraph, to watch historical footage of their invasion into Germany territory.


  • Ghandi, Mahatma - Overview Biography: Advocating non-violent resistance to British rule in India, Ghandi united Hindus and Muslims. To see an overview of his accomplishments, click on “overthrow” (in the second paragraph).


  • Ghetto - Its Meaning and Beginnings: What does the word "ghetto" mean? When was it first used? Why were people segregated to live apart in their own cities? Click on "ghettoes" in the third chapter of this story, second bullet, to watch a video clip about ghetto beginnings in fifteenth-century Venice, Italy.


  • Glaciers, Baltoro - World’s Largest: Located in the Karakoram Mountains, near the majestic K2, the Baltoro is the world’s largest glacier. To pay a virtual visit, click on “most beautiful” (in the middle of the third paragraph).


  • Glaciers, Calving - Antarctica: Sir Richard Attenborough explains how icebergs form when glaciers “calve.” Click on “break away,” in the third paragraph, to watch this interesting phenomenon.


  • Gladiators, Roman: Roman games featured more than gladiators fighting each other to the death. Spectacles also included many wild animals. To watch a program about the games, and the animals they featured, click on the links (in the order they appear) in the second paragraph.


  • Gobi Desert - Travelogue: Take a virtual trip to Mongolia’s Gobi Desert by clicking on “Gobi Desert” (in the fifth paragraph).


  • Gorillas (Eastern) - In the Wild: Observe Eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) as they beat their chests, care for their babies and play with each other. To see the movies, look for the bullet points under "Eastern gorillas."


  • Gorillas (Western) - Living in Nature: Daily life for a Western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) means foraging for food, constructing a treetop bed and playing in the water. Watch the movies - including a "silverback" asserting his authority - in the "Western gorillas" section.


  • Grande Armée - Napoleonic Conquests: Under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte, the French Grand Army swept across Europe. To learn about their exploits, and Napoleon’s brilliant military maneuvers, click on “treaty with Russia” (in the third paragraph).


  • Grant, Ulysses S. - 18th President: As a leader of soldiers, Grant won the war for the Union during America’s civil war. What was he like as a president? Explore the evidence by clicking on “Grant” in the first paragraph.


  • Grant, Ulysses S. - Union General: Ulysses S. Grant, the Union general, won the war for President Lincoln and his country. Grant’s wife always believed her husband would one day be famous. Learn more about them by clicking on “the warrior” in the first paragraph.


  • Great Barrier Reef - Underwater Beauty: For 1,200 miles off the northeast coast of Australia, a coral reef supports the world's most spectacular underwater display. Take a peek by clicking "on film" in the last paragraph. When you get to the link - at the Science Museum of Minnesota - select "Great Barrier Reef" at the bottom of the page. Next, select "Video Clip" which you will see just above the moving images.


  • Great Storm of 1900 - Galveston: Thomas Edison's film company recorded many significant events during the early twentieth century. In this video from the Library of Congress, searchers try to find missing people after the deadly hurricane which crippled Galveston in September of 1900. Click on "searchers" in the seventh paragraph.


  • Great Wall - China: Why did the Chinese people build so many walls in their country? When was the Great Wall started? How long did it take to build? Get some background by clicking on "Great Wall" in the last paragraph.


  • Great Wall, China - Building Techniques: After China was united, the First Emperor sent 300,000 soldiers to the northern frontier to drive back invading nomads. When that job was finished, the army worked with a half-million peasants to build the first part of the Great Wall. Click on “exhausted workers,” in the fifth paragraph, to see how it was possible to build thousands of miles of wall within just twelve years.


  • Great Wall, China - Lost Walls: The section of China’s ancient wall, which is most-often featured in pictures and film, is actually new. Other parts of the wall, which people do not usually see, are even more interesting. Take a look by clicking on “wonder of the world,” in the first paragraph.


  • Great Wall, China - Purpose: Why did the First Emperor of China, and later rulers (especially the Ming Dynasty), build a great wall? To uncover the background, and learn some startling facts, click on “Great Wall” (in the second paragraph). The video clip is from a National Geographic documentary.


  • Great Wall, China - Stages of: One of the world’s wonders, China’s massive wall was built in stages. Click on “linked together,” in the fourth paragraph, to explore its roots.


  • Groves, General Leslie R. - Manhattan Project Leader: Who was this “indispensable man” in charge of developing the world’s first atomic bomb? To learn more about him, click on “Leslie Groves,” in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Gunpowder Plot - Disaster Averted: A group of conspirators, including Guy Fawkes, concocted a plan to blow up Britain’s Houses of Parliament on opening day, the 5th of November, 1605. One of their chief objectives was to kill the Protestant King, James I. When the king’s men found Fawkes, guarding thirty-six barrels of gunpowder, the plot unraveled and the conspirators were doomed. To watch key segments of a BBC documentary on the subject, click on the links (in their order of appearance) in the first sentence of the fourth paragraph.


  • Halley's Comet - A Medieval Omen: In the middle ages, people in Britain saw Halley’s Comet in the sky. They didn’t know it was a comet and were afraid that it was a bad omen. Not long after, their country was conquered by William, the Duke of Normandy, in a 1066 battle near Hastings. To discover the impact of “the star” on those medieval people, click on “narrated animation” at the end of the sixth paragraph.


  • Han Dynasty - Chinese Rulers: The Han dynasty also built a great wall which has resisted two thousand years of erosion in the barren desert. Remnants of firewood, used to send smoke signals along that wall, still survive because of the Gobi’s dry climate. So do letters which men, including forced laborers, left behind - opening a window into the lives of people who lived so long ago. To step back in time, and explore that ancient world, click on “smoke signals” (in the seventh paragraph).


  • Hannibal Lechter - Anthony Hopkins: How does one create a character like Hannibal Lechter? Watch an interview with Anthony Hopkins to learn his approach. (Click on “Hannibal Lechter” in the second paragraph of this chapter.)


  • Hawthorne, Nathaniel - The Scarlet Letter: To watch a short video interpretation of Hawthorne’s famous novel, click on “issues” in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Hawthorne, Nathaniel - Themes in The Scarlet Letter: To watch Hawthorne experts discuss the author, and analyze themes in his most famous novel, click on “resolution of that conflict” near the end of the second paragraph.


  • Henry, Patrick - Liberty or Death: Expressing his sincere desire that all American colonies should eliminate British control, Patrick Henry declared: “Give me liberty or give me death!” Watch a recreation of that speech, linked in the third paragraph.


  • Henry, Patrick - Treasonous Speech: Criticizing the British Parliament in a fiery speech (considered treasonous by some of his colleagues), Patrick Henry made his position clear on May 30, 1765. Because he spoke without notes (as he often did), no written record remains of his exact words. Click on "to be treason," in the sixth paragraph, to watch a recreation.


  • Himalaya - A Virtual Visit: To view scenes from the majestic Himalayan Mountains, while hearing beautiful accompanying music, click on “soaring mountain peaks” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Himalayan Yeti - Are They Real? For more than 150 years, people have claimed to see a creature in the Himalayan Mountains which Sherpas call “Yeti.” Does it really exist? Take a virtual trip, in search of the Yeti, by clicking on these links (in this order): “Abominable Snowman” (first paragraph), “unidentified footprints” (first bullet) and “unidentified creature” (second bullet).


  • Hindenburg - Explosion: Landing in New Jersey, following a thunderstorm, one of Germany's airships - the Hindenburg - exploded. It disintegrated in less than a minute. See archival video footage of the disaster by clicking on "movies" in the first paragraph.


  • Hiroshima - First Atomic-Bomb Attack: During most of the second world war, the Japanese city of Hiroshima had been spared the physical destruction of war. Save for apparently uneventful fly-overs by American bombers, the city seemed peaceful. But on the 6th day of August, 1945, a B-29 called Enola Gay was in the air, en route to Hiroshima.

    Aboard the plane, operating in conditions at least as cold as an arctic winter, a weapons specialist was arming an atomic bomb named “Little Boy.” The pilot in command, Colonel Paul Tibbets, carried twelve cyanide capsules in case something went wrong for him and his men. The weather was perfect - for people in the city and for the bomb crew in the air. To watch a recreation of events leading up to - and including - the bombing of the city, click on “Hiroshima,” in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Hiroshima - Soldier Saves Child: Amidst the chaos and debris of bomb-ravaged Hiroshima, a soldier finds a young schoolboy and reunites him with his father. To see the rescued child tell his emotional story decades later, click on “were prepared,” in the first paragraph.


  • Hiroshima - Taking Off with the Bomb: What was it like to be part of the crew which dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima? To find out, click on “August 6, 1945,” in the first paragraph. The video includes interviews with crew members.


  • Hiroshima - Weapon of Mass Destruction: What did crew members of the Enola Gay observe after the bomb reached its target? What did survivors see, and experience, after the weapon exploded forty-three seconds after “bomb’s away?” Click on “released,” in the first paragraph, to watch interviews and an animation of the bomb’s firing procedure.


  • Hitler's Bunker - People Who Were There: By the end of April, 1945, it was clear that Germany had lost the war. Berlin had been decimated by weeks of bombing and ground warfare. Hitler summoned certain individuals to his bunker, to thank them for their service and to say good-bye. View the conditions in Berlin, and the scene in Hitler’s bunker, by clicking on “hopeless” (in the last paragraph). Be warned, however, that the video depicts graphic scenes of war.


  • Hitler’s Bunker - Recreating the End: Following interviews with many witnesses, James O’Donnell wrote The Bunker (1978) which describes Hitler’s last days. One of his key contacts was Albert Speer, Hitler’s architect. To see a recreated scene (based on O’Donnell’s book) between Hitler (played by Anthony Hopkins) and Speer (played by Richard Jordan), click on “in his bunker” (in the seventh paragraph).


  • Hitler's Bunker - Suicide: Rather than be captured by the Soviet Army, Hitler committed suicide on the 30th of April, 1945. So did his wife, Eva Braun. Their remains (burned on Hitler’s orders) were not fully combusted, allowing the Soviets to find them in a garden outside the bunker. To learn more about what happened, and to watch interviews with eyewitnesses, click on the links in the non-bullet quote. Be warned, however: The videos depict graphic scenes of war.


  • Hitler’s Remains - What Happened? Eyewitnesses report that Hitler and his new wife, Eva Braun, committed suicide on the 30th of April, 1945. Following their leader’s orders, members of Hitler’s staff burned the bodies. Because they did not fully combust, those bodies were found by Red Army soldiers. Events thereafter remained a mystery for decades, until the Russian Archives were opened after the end of the Soviet Union. To learn what happened to Hitler’s remains, go to the last paragraph and - in their order of appearance - click on plus, body parts and personal possessions.


  • Hitler Youth - Children Defend Berlin: In one of his last public appearances, Hitler met with members of the “Hitler Youth” who were defending Berlin against the Red Army’s advance. After awarding them medals for their efforts, the German leader asked some of the boys to tell their stories. View the newsreel which featured them by clicking on “award Iron Crosses” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Hubble Telescope - First Ten Years: The space-orbiting Hubble Telescope changed the way humans see space. To view a summary of its first decade, click on “first ten years” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Hubble Telescope - Images from Space: A cooperative program between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency), Hubble was the first orbiting space telescope. To watch a composite of its most impressive transmissions, click on “beautiful images” (in the last paragraph).


  • Hubble Telescope - Vision Repair: When Hubble - the orbiting telescope - was built, its creators gave it distorted vision. Learn how astronauts “gave it glasses” during STS-61, a mission flown by the space shuttle Endeavor and its crew. Click on “blurry vision” (in the first paragraph) to see an interview with the man who fixed the problem.


  • Ia Drang - We Were Soldiers: To learn about the first ground battle of the Vietnam War, and to see a brief interview with Lt Col Hal Moore, click on “Moore learned,” in the third paragraph.


  • I am David - Overview: Anne Holm’s story about David, a boy who must perform hard labor in a Bulgarian forced-labor camp, is also available as a movie. To see a clip from the film, click on “David’s story” (in the last paragraph).


  • Icebergs - How They Form: Icebergs form when the leading edge of glaciers break away and fall into the sea. Watch (and listen) to this phenomenon (called calving) by clicking on “break away” (in the third paragraph).


  • Iguazu Falls - Virtual Tour: One of the most spectacular water falls in the world, the Iguazu are located at the border of Argentina and Brazil. To see them, click on “thunderously falls” (in the first paragraph), “stunning views” (in the third) and “spectacular adventure” (in the fourth).


  • Inca Empire, Remnants and People: The Inca Empire, in South America, lasted about a century. To meet some of its descendants, and to virtually visit their current and historical homes, click on “one hundred years” (in the second paragraph).


  • Incas, Conquest of: To learn more about this turning point in history, click on “kingdom fell” in the middle of the second paragraph.


  • Indiana Jones IV - The Falls: When Indiana Jones and his compatriots get into trouble, at the roaring Iguazu Falls, they miraculously survive. To see (and hear) the most famous section of the falls (called “Devil’s Throat”), click on “Garganta del Diablo” (in the second paragraph).


  • India/Pakistan - The Partition: When Britain gave up its control over India, the country was split. Why did that happen? What price did the people pay when partition gave birth to Pakistan in 1947? Click on "disagreements," in the second chapter, to learn more about this wrenching time.


  • Inquisition - Kidnapping of Children: In 1998, the Catholic Church opened the archive of the Holy Office of the Inquisition for a limited review. A documentary, based on those materials and other sources, includes a section on the church-sanctioned kidnapping of a Jewish child, Edgardo Mortara. The actions of Edgardo’s father, as he tried to convince the Pope to return his son, helped to finally end the Inquisition (although Edgardo himself remained lost to his family).


  • Inquisition - Medieval Instruments of Torture: To root-out perceived heresy, the Catholic Church began its first Inquisition (especially against Waldensians in southern France) around 1184. The persecution continued, in varying degrees and places (especially in Spain) for about six hundred years. Click on "the Inquisition," in the second paragraph, to watch a documentary about it.


  • Insects - Vapourer Moth: This wingless female moth lays eggs - at great speeds - on her former cocoon. Watch this fascinating process by clicking on "insects," in the first paragraph. When you get to the PBS link, click "Replicators" - on the left side - then scroll to the end.


  • Insects - Tasty Treats?? Throughout the non-western world, insects are used as food. Steamed hornet grubs, and sauteed bamboo worms, are just two delicacies. To see how these insects are prepared for dinner, click on "insects," in the first paragraph. When you get to the PBS link, click "War of the Worlds" - on the right side - then scroll down for the video.


  • Ipatiev House - Scene of Romanov Execution: Tsar Nicholas II and his entire family were executed late in the evening of July 16, 1918. Click on “Ekaterinburg,” in the last chapter, to see the now-demolished place of execution).


  • Ivan the Terrible - Sergei Eisenstein Film: Because Ivan IV (also known as Ivan Grozny - Russian for “Ivan the Terrible”) was one of his heroes, Joseph Stalin commissioned film maker Sergei Eisenstein to produce a movie about Russia’s first tsar (czar). To see a clip from the famous film, click on “Ivan Grozny” in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Iwo Jima, Battle of - First Airfield Captured: With the fierce battle still raging, Marines captured one of Iwo Jima’s airfields. Before long, crippled B-29s were able to safely land. To see how that happened, click on “an emergency landing” in the fourth paragraph.


  • Iwo Jima - Casualties: The hard-fought battle for Iwo Jima produced thousands of casualties. To watch historical footage, coupled with recreations, click on “within a week” (in the first bullet).


  • Iwo Jima - Defensive Positions: As American Marines landed on the beaches of Iwo Jima, no one fired on them - for one hour. To learn what happened thereafter, click on “Everything changed,” in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Iwo Jima - Flag Raising: One of the most reproduced photos of the twentieth century was shot at Iwo Jima. Many of the men involved later died in the battle. To watch the flag-raising story, click on “their destination” (in the third paragraph).


  • Iwo Jima - Flame Throwers: Because Japanese defenders were so “dug in” on the island, the invading Marines used more than mortars and gun fire to find them. Click on “flame throwers,” in the eighth paragraph, to see another type of weapon in action.


  • Iwo Jima - Mortar Attacks: Mortars were part of the weapons arsenal for both sides. Click on “round after round,” in the fourth bullet, to see historical footage coupled with mortar-attack animation.


  • Iwo Jima - Summary of Battle: A Japanese possession, the island was sacred to Japan and desired by America. Without it, the Allies would keep losing damaged war planes as they fell into the Pacific. With it, they would have a base from which to launch attacks on the Japanese home islands. To learn why the battle was so vicious, click on “a fight to the death,” in the last paragraph.


  • Jefferson, Thomas - Independence: Known as the “silent member” of Congress, Jefferson was selected to draft the Declaration of Independence because he was known as an excellent writer. To learn more about it, click on “recognized writing skills” and “prepare the first draft” (in the third paragraph).


  • Jefferson, Thomas - Marriage: Martha and Thomas Jefferson were very close. When he lost his wife, America’s future president was devastated. Learn more by watching the video clip for “his wife died,” in the eighth paragraph.


  • Jefferson, Thomas - Slavery: A man of contrasts who owned slaves, Jefferson declared that all men were born equal. He included a scathing indictment of slavery in the first draft of the Declaration of Independence. To learn more about his position on slavery, click on “we are all born free” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Jung, George - Interview with Ted Demme: To watch an interview between George Jung (on whom the movie Blow is based) and Ted Demme (the now-deceased director of that film), click on the links (in their order of appearance) in the fifth paragraph.


  • K2 - Climbing the World’s Most Dangerous Mountain: Known as the “savage mountain,” the world’s second-tallest peak - K2 - has claimed the lives of more climbers than any other massif. To find out why, click “on the mountain” (in the last paragraph) and virtually join an American team attempting to scale its summit.


  • Kennedy, John F. - His Last Day: On the morning of November 22, 1963, President Kennedy and his wife, Jackie, attended a breakfast in their honor. Joking with the Ft Worth (Texas) crowd, JFK was in top form while Jackie looked beautiful. To see the archival footage, click on “the President’s words” (in the last paragraph).


  • Kennedy, John F. - The Assassination: Governor John Connally, and his wife Nellie, were in the presidential limousine when President Kennedy was fatally shot. Injured by a bullet himself, Connally knew JFK was mortally wounded when he heard Mrs. Kennedy’s reaction to the shooting. Click on “what she said,” in the sixth paragraph, to watch Connally relate what happened.


  • Kent State - May 4 Shootings: On April 30, 1970, President Nixon announced the bombing of Cambodia. The war, by this time, was widely criticized throughout the U.S. since approximately 50,000 Americans had already lost their lives in Vietnam. Viewing this as an escalation of the conflict, students at Kent State set fire to an ROTC building. On the following Monday, 4 May 1970, the Ohio governor sent members of the Ohio National Guard to the campus. What happened thereafter resulted in the deaths of four students. To learn more, click on “protest movement” in the third paragraph.


  • Killer Whales - Orcas in Action: To see how Orca Whales live up to their other name, click on “whales” in the tenth paragraph. To watch an interview with the camera man, who captured the footage, click on “Orca Attack.”


  • King, Martin Luther, Jr - I Have a Dream Speech: On the 28th of August, 1963, Dr. King gave a speech following a peaceful demonstration in Washington, D.C. Describing the gathering, in which people demanded equal rights for blacks and whites, as “the greatest demonstration for freedom in the history of our nation,” Dr. King delivered some of his most famous words. To watch the "I Have a Dream" speech, click on “accomplishments” (in the last paragraph).


  • King, Martin Luther, Jr - Mountaintop Speech: On April 3, 1968, Dr. King was in Memphis, Tennessee to support sanitation workers. That night he delivered, extemporaneously, a powerful speech which was both moving and prophetic. Watch him say the most famous lines of his “Mountaintop” speech by clicking on “threats against his life” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Krakatoa, May 1883 - Enormous Volcanic Eruption: The Indonesian volcano, Krakatoa, reawakened in the spring of 1883. For two days in August that year - the 26th and 27th - it had at least four stupendous eruptions, culminating in such a huge blast that two-thirds of the island collapsed. Watch what may have happened by clicking on “recreate” (in the seventh paragraph).


  • Kublai Khan - Founder of Yuan Dynasty: A grandson of Genghis, Kublai became the Great Khan in 1260. He moved his capital to Beijing, built the Forbidden City and was ruler of China when Marco Polo paid a visit (then remained in China for seventeen years). The Yuan Dynasty lasted about one hundred years. Although its rulers supported Chinese culture, they spoke their own language - Mongolian. Devastating floods of the Yellow River led to large-spread famine and helped to cause the Yuan Dynasty’s downfall. To learn what China was like at the time, click on “Kublai Khan” (in the tenth paragraph).


  • Lenin, Vladimir - Soviet Leader: The charismatic Bolshevik leader helped to overthrow four hundred years of tsarist rule in Russia. To learn more about him, click on the links for “Vladimir Lenin” (in the first paragraph).


  • Lewis, C.S. - The Chronicles of Narnia: During World War II, Clive Staples (“Jack”) Lewis was a popular voice on the BBC. Who was this author of The Chronicles of Narnia? To watch videos about his life and work, click on “broadcasts” (in the second paragraph).


  • Longbow, English - Battle Scene: The English longbow gave English armies a distinct advantage during medieval times. At the battle of Agincourt, for example, disproportionate losses (between the French and the English) were due, in large measure, to the longbow. To see why, click on “longbowmen” in the second paragraph.


  • Lusitania - Sinking: During her 202nd crossing of the Atlantic, the Lusitania was struck by a torpedo from a German U-boat (U-20). Thereafter, she sustained a massive explosion and quickly sank. Historians have speculated ever since whether the passenger ship was carrying munitions for Britain’s use during World War I. Click on “massive internal explosion,” in the second paragraph, to see archival footage, coupled with film recreation.


  • Luther, Martin - His World: When Martin Luther nailed his ninety-five theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, in 1517, the world was a different place than it is now. Find out why by clicking on “the time” (in the first paragraph).


  • Luther, Martin - The Man: Believing in the free exchange of ideas, Martin Luther also enjoyed having a drink with his friends. He was, by most accounts, “a likeable fellow” who could not have imagined how much his beliefs would change the world. Click on “his reforms,” in the fourth paragraph, to learn more about him.


  • Luther, Martin - Troubling Aspects: Luther once said: “We should fear and love God, and so we should not tell lies about our neighbor, nor betray, slander, or defame him, but should apologize for him, speak well of him, and interpret charitably all that he does.” Near the end of his life, especially, Luther did not follow his own advice when it came to Jewish people. Learn more about it by clicking on “end of his life” (in the last paragraph).


  • Lyre Bird - Amazing Mimicker from South Australia: This incredible bird, whose feathered plume resembles a lyre, has a repertoire which even includes the sound of a clicking camera. One has to see (and hear) it to believe it. To watch a clip of his concert, click on “lyrebird” (in the third paragraph).


  • McKinley Assassination - Gathering Crowds: Shocked people, attending the Pan American Exhibition in Buffalo, gather as news of the presidential shooting spreads. Thomas Edison's film company captured the scene where some in the crowd demanded that the assassin be lynched. Click on "surging crowds" in the third paragraph.


  • Machu Picchu - Remarkable Inca Ruins: The abandoned Inca settlement of Machu Picchu is set against the backdrop of stunningly beautiful scenery. Likely never found by invading Spanish conquistadors, the site remains one of the world’s most fascinating places. Pay a virtual visit by clicking “at Machu Picchu” (near the end of the third paragraph).


  • Mallory, George - Historical Footage at Everest: On the 8th of June, 1924, George Mallory and Andrew (Sandy) Irvine were attempting to reach the summit of Mt. Everest. They were last seen on the northeast ridge, a few hundred meters from the top of the mountain. Then they disappeared. For seventy-five years, no one knew what had happened - until Mallory’s mummified body was found. Irvine is still missing. See these famous climbers, in their heyday, by clicking on “Mallory and Andrew Irvine” (in the second paragraph).


  • Mallory, George - Mummified Body Found: In June of 1924, while approaching the summit of Mt Everest with his climbing companion, George Mallory disappeared. His mummified body was found by Conrad Anker in 1999. To learn more about it, watch an interview with Anker by clicking on “He had found” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Manchu (Qing) Dynasty - China’s Last Emperors: Foreigners from Manchuria were allowed into China during the seventeenth century. Soon thereafter, they established the Manchu (also known as Qing) Dynasty. To find out how that happened, click on “destroyed by rebels” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Manchu (Qing) Dynasty - End of an Era: For more than two thousand years (ever since the First Emperor united seven warring states in 221 B.C.), China was ruled by various imperial dynasties. That type of government ended in 1911. A century of civil war, foreign invasion, chaos and cultural revolution followed - and stretches of China’s ancient wall were destroyed. To learn how the Great Wall is maintained today, click on “Manchu Dynasty” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Mandolin - Its Sound: What does a mandolin sound like? To hear a famous concerto, where a mandolin is the solo instrument, click on “mandolin’s tonal sound,” in the second paragraph.


  • Mars - Descent to the Red Planet: As the spacecraft carrying an exploratory rover descends to Mars, controllers on Earth are monitoring what is occurring hundreds of millions of miles away. Watch a recreated descent by clicking on “the Martian surface” (in the fifth paragraph).


  • Mars - Entry to the Red Planet: After streaking through space for seven months, carrying an exploratory rover, a spacecraft headed for Mars must drastically slow down so it can enter the Martian atmosphere. Mission control, back on Earth, must manage the entry process. Click on “Six Minutes of Terror,” in the fourth paragraph, to find out why those controllers get so worried about the spacecraft’s safety.


  • Mars - Landing on the Red Planet: Hitting the Martian surface “at about 40 Gs,” a lander carrying the Mars rover is cushioned by air bags. It bounces between fifteen and twenty times before it comes to rest. If the lander hits a rock, the mission could be severely compromised, or worse. Observe a recreated landing by clicking on “the surface” (in the fifth paragraph).


  • Mars - Reconnaissance Orbiter: After traveling seven months to Mars, the orbiter (MRO) circles the Red Planet and transmits images to her controllers on Earth. Click on these links (in the next-to-last paragraph) to follow her journey: “launched,” “now sends” and “keeping an eye.”


  • Mars - Rover: After the Mars Exploratory Rover (called MER) arrives on the Martian surface, it goes through a kind of metamorphosis. To see it change from travel to work mode, click on “assemble themselves” (for part one) and “on its own” (for part two), in the seventh paragraph.


  • Mars, Sojourn on the Red Planet - Opportunity's Story: Experiencing less difficulty than her sister rover, Opportunity (also known as MER-B) has transmitted interesting data back to Earth. To learn about her Martian travels, click on “Opportunity” (in the third-from-the-bottom paragraph).


  • Mars, Sojourn on the Red Planet - Spirit's Story: Since her arrival on Mars, the exploratory rover Spirit (also known as MER-A) has had quite a journey on the Martian surface. To discover where she has been, and what she has accomplished, click on “Spirit” (in the third-from-the-bottom paragraph).


  • Mausoleum - First Emperor of China: Although he avoided an assassination attempt, Qin Shi Huangdi knew that one day he would die. To prepare for the afterlife, the First Emperor ordered about 700,000 workers to build a magnificent mausoleum and underground city of death. To be sure his slave laborers did not escape, they were branded on their faces. Learn more about this famous emperor (who also unified weights, measures, writing and laws), by clicking “on their faces” (in the third-to-last paragraph).


  • Mercury - Rivers of Quicksilver: Medieval alchemists believed that mercury could be turned into gold. The First Emperor of China may have consumed mercury, in some form, believing it would help him live longer. Chroniclers said the emperor’s tomb contained rivers of mercury, representing the rivers of China. Soil samples from the site, taken more than two thousand years after his death, tend to support the chronicles. Check it out by clicking on “high levels of mercury,” in the fourth paragraph.


  • Milky Way Galaxy - Home of the Solar System: Our solar system, including the Earth, is part of a larger galaxy called the Milky Way. NASA has created a virtual journey through the Milky Way, to help everyone understand how huge it really is. Take a look by clicking on “visit to space” (in the last paragraph).


  • Ming Dynasty - Great Wall: In 1368, while Europe was devastated by the Black Death, rulers of China’s Ming Dynasty began a huge project - a wall, made of stone, stretching across China for thousands of miles. Much of the work was done by convicts. If a worker died, he was replaced by another member of his family until the original worker’s sentence was completed. Click on “The Ming Wall,” in the fourth-to-last paragraph, to learn more.


  • Ming Dynasty - Life in the Forbidden City: Determined that no foreigner (such as Genghis Khan) would ever rule China again, the Ming rulers fortified China’s territory. Willing to pay whatever price was needed to keep their dynasty in power, these emperors had a godlike existence, ruling from the Forbidden City in Beijing. Explore some of their history by clicking on “effective defense system” in the third-to-last paragraph. (Note, however, that the clothing depicted in the video is not from the Ming era.)


  • Minoan Civilization - Palace at Knossos: Did King Minos really build a labyrinth to hide a monster known as the Minotaur? What can we learn from excavations at the palace of Knossos (in Crete)? To uncover some of the legends, click “take a trip,” in the last paragraph, and move the video clip forward to about 1:50.


  • Moon Landing - July 20, 1969: To view a BBC documentary, incorporating historical footage and recreated scenes, click on “the lunar landing” links (in the sixth paragraph).


  • Monticello - Jefferson's Home: Take a video tour of Thomas Jefferson's home in Virginia by clicking on "Monticello" (in the second paragraph).


  • Mummies - Tollund Man: Iron-Age mummies, like Denmark’s Tollund Man, were often naturally formed in peat bogs. To learn about that process, click on “How could” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Mycenae - Ancient Greece: Believed to be a superpower of ancient Greece, Mycenae was home to King Agamemnon. Click on “landscapes,” in the second paragraph, to take a virtual trip to this Bronze-Age stronghold.


  • Nagasaki - Nuclear Attack: On the 9th of August, 1945, a B-29 called “Bock’s Car” dropped a plutonium-239 bomb dubbed “Fat Man” on the city of Nagasaki. The weapon was originally intended for the city of Kokura, but poor visibility over the primary target caused a change in plans. To learn why the bomb was dropped, and to see its aftermath, click on “Nagasaki” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Nazca Lines - A Virtual Tour: Viewed from above, the ancient Nazca Lines of Peru are stunning. Click on “seen from above,” in the fifth paragraph, to take a look.


  • Neanderthals - Created Glue: Based on archeological findings, experts have concluded that Neanderthals invented a kind of glue made from birch wood. Click on “type of adhesive,” in the first paragraph, to learn how they may have done it.


  • Nelson, Admiral Horatio - Death Aboard HMS Victory: During the battle of Trafalgar, Admiral Nelson was felled by a single shot and died on his ship. Did the shooter target him? Click on “his ship,” in the second paragraph, to discover what experts determined during a recreation on the still-existent HMS Victory.


  • Nile River - Blue Nile, Source of: Near the source of the Blue Nile, people still use boats, made of papyrus reeds, which are based on an ancient design. Take a virtual trip with the BBC, to a place of spectacular beauty, by clicking on “Blue Nile” in the second bullet.


  • Nosferatu - Film About Dracula: A silent film by F.W. Murnau, which still defines the horror genre, Nosferatu was ordered destroyed by a British court. Pirated copies of the famous film survived. To watch it online, click on “Nosferatu,” in the last paragraph.


  • Nuclear Attack, Warnings for: In the 1970s, people were concerned that countries would use nuclear weapons against each other. The BBC created an information film on what to do in the event of such an attack. To see it, click on "exposed to radiation" in the third paragraph.


  • Nuclear Weapons, Impact of: The United States government filmed various tests of nuclear weapons. To view a compilation of the bomb's explosive power, click on "exploding" in the last paragraph.


  • Oceans - The Blue Planet: Sixty percent of the Earth is covered by oceans. That makes sea water the largest of all Earth’s habitats. For a look at its beauty, and some of its extraordinary creatures, click on the links for “the” and “sea” (in the last paragraph).


  • Odyssey, The - Homer’s Story of Ulysses: Returning from the Trojan War, Odysseus (also referred to as Ulysses) was forced into a ten-year detour. Watch a summary of the tale by clicking on The Odyssey (near the end of the second paragraph).


  • Olympics, Ancient - Early Games: The ancient Olympics began in about the eighth century, B.C. How important were those games to the Greeks? What honors were bestowed on the winning athletes? Why did they end, after twelve hundred years? Take a virtual trip to the ancient world to discover more about it. Click on “Archaic Period,” in the last paragraph, and move the video clip forward to 6:00. Then click on “ancient” to finish watching the segment.


  • Olympics, Ancient - Honors Bestowed: So highly regarded were winning athletes, in the ancient games, that their names were used in the Greek calendar. People referenced events by the year that a particular champion prevailed in his sport. To learn more about ancient-Olympic honors, click on “immortalized their exploits” in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Olympics, Ancient - Stadium at Olympia: Winning athletes who competed in the Olympic stadium (including barefooted runners) were crowned with wreaths made from sacred olive trees. Tens of thousands of men, from all parts of Greece, traveled to Olympia to watch or participate. To see what is left of the stadium, and its surroundings, click on “stadium at Olympic” (in the first paragraph).


  • One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich - Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn: During the Stalinist era, Nobel Laureate Solzhenitsyn was a prisoner in a forced labor camp. His novel, about Ivan Denisovich Shukhov, relates what life was like in such a place. To see historical footage of Soviet forced laborers at work, click on “was like,” in the fourth paragraph.


  • Operation Rolling Thunder - Vietnam Escalates: Changing his mind about the extent of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, President Johnson substantially increases America’s presence in Southeast Asia. Click on “Moore learned,” in the third paragraph, to learn why LBJ made a different choice.


  • Orpheus and Eurydice - Greek Mythology: When his wife (Eurydice) died from a snake bite, Orpheus was devastated. He successfully begged the gods to let him retrieve Eurydice from the underworld (Hades). On their way out, he made a fatal mistake when he turned to look at her. To watch the story, click on the links (in their order of appearance) in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Oswald, Lee Harvey - Captured: Within hours after President Kennedy was shot in Dallas, Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested as a suspect. To see archival footage about his capture, click on “arrest” (in the third paragraph).


  • Parthenon - Wonder of Ancient Greece: Arising from a field of ruins on the Athenian Acropolis, the Parthenon commemorated the city-state’s ultimate victory over the Persians and honored the goddess, Athena. How did Pericles (the statesman) and Phidias (the sculptor) undertake the most significant building projects in Greek history? Step back in time, to learn how events unfolded, by clicking on “ancient” (in the last paragraph) and moving the video clip forward to 8:00. Then click on “Greece” to watch the conclusion of the story.


  • Penobscot Expedition - Naval Disaster: The worst American naval disaster, until the Pearl Harbor attack, is a largely forgotten story in U.S. history. To learn what happened - and to see recently uncovered colonial weapons - click on “Penobscot Expedition” (in the first paragraph).


  • Pirates, Caribbean - Golden Age of Piracy: Before European countries (like Britain and France) turned against pirates and privateers, they had encouraged them (because piracy harmed Spain). Women, such as Anne Bonny and Mary Read, were also pirates at the time. Investigate by clicking on “until,” at the end of this chapter.


  • Pirate Shipwreck - The Whydah Gally: Captain “Black Sam” Bellamy (a notorious pirate) lost his flagship (the Whydah Gally) when a storm overpowered him, and his crew, in April of 1717. To learn more about Bellamy, and the only documented discovery of a pirate ship, click on “disasters” (in the last paragraph).


  • Planet Earth - Animal Life: From elephants reaching water (after a long trek) to humpback whales (singing for a mate) to endangered blue whales (which can weigh up to two-hundred tons!), the Earth is filled with amazing creatures. See some of the most interesting, featured in the BBC’s series Planet Earth, by clicking on "the Earth's" (in the first paragraph).


  • Plate Tectonics - Mountain Formation: Scientists believe that mountains form when the Earth’s tectonic plates converge. For a video/animated explanation, click on “tectonic plates” in the last paragraph.


  • Plate Tectonics - Scientific Theory: To explain how continental drift occurs, scientists have developed the theory of plate tectonics (or, plate structure). Click on “continental drift,” in the sixth paragraph, to watch a video (with animations) which explains this theory.


  • Poland - Germany Invades: When Hitler decided to invade Poland, his troops attacked that country in September of 1939. You can see German newsreel footage of the invasion by clicking on "surrendered" in the third paragraph. When you get to the link - at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum - scroll down 80% until you see "Daily life in the Warsaw ghetto." Click on the picture to view historical films. When you get to the link, look at the top of the page. You will see "Germany Invades Poland." Click on the picture to watch the video clip.


  • Poland - Home to Jewish Communities: Before the second world war, Poland had the largest Jewish community in the world. How did that happen? By the late fifteenth century, Jewish people from Germany were coming to Poland. Polish nobles turned to these new residents to help them develop the country. Learn the story by clicking on "ghettoes" in the third chapter of this story, second bullet. When you get to the PBS link, scroll down to "Poland" to watch the video.


  • Presidential Funerals - William McKinley: As the body of the assassinated president leaves his home in Ohio, a huge crowd gathers to pay its respects. Thomas Edison's film company recorded the scene, later selling its movie for $12 (in 1901 dollars). Click on "gathered," in the fourth paragraph.


  • Protestant Reformation - Impact on the World: When Martin Luther accused the Catholic Church of ninety-five abuses, in 1517, his actions started a societal revolution. To discover how significantly that movement changed the world, click on “Protestant Reformation” in the fourth paragraph.


  • Radiation - Effects of Nuclear Fallout: In the 1970s, people were concerned that countries would use nuclear weapons against each other. The BBC created an information film on the effects of radiation fallout. To see it, click on "exposed to radiation" in the third paragraph.


  • Rainforest - Life in the Trees: Thousands of species thrive in the trees of a tropical rainforest. Take a closer look at some of these plants and animals by clicking "on film" in the last paragraph. When you get to the link - at the Science Museum of Minnesota - select "Tropical Rainforest" at the bottom of the page. Next, select "Video Clip" which you will see just above the moving images.


  • Reagan, Ronald - Attempted Assassination: During the afternoon of March 30, 1981, a would-be assassin waited for President Reagan in Washington, D.C. What happened during, and immediately after, the shooting? To learn the answers, and see interviews with some of the people who were there, click on “shot” in the first paragraph.


  • Reagan, Ronald - On the Attempted Assassination: Joking with the doctors who cared for him, President Reagan had nonetheless come dangerously close to dying from the attempted assassination. Click on “recovering,” in the first paragraph, to watch him describe what happened.


  • Revere, Paul - Tried for Cowardice: Known to millions as a Revolutionary War hero, Paul Revere also has a darker side to his history. He was in charge of land artillery in the Penobscot Expedition, America’s worst naval disaster before Pearl Harbor. To learn more about the failed mission, and Revere’s role in it, click on “Penobscot Expedition,” in the first paragraph. The link leads to various video clips on the subject.


  • Ring of Fire - Zone of Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Scientists believe that earthquakes and volcanoes occur along the Earth’s “ring of fire.” To discover what this means, click on “grind” in the third paragraph.


  • Roosevelt, Franklin D. - Death of: Pictures of FDR, attending the Yalta Conference in February of 1945, show that he was unwell. Two months later, on the 12th of April, the president was sitting for a portrait at the “Little White House” in Warm Springs, Georgia. Complaining of a terrible headache, he was dead of a stroke within hours. To discover what happened, click on “needed a rest” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Roswell UFO - Original Report: On the 7th of July, 1947, the public information office at Roswell Army Air Field (in Roswell, New Mexico) reported “the crash and recovery of a flying disc.” To hear ABC’s original news broadcast about the event, click on “summer of 1947,” in the second paragraph.


  • Russian Revolution - The Story in Color: By February of 1917, the first world war had taken a heavy toll on the Russian people. Many were starving, and they wanted the war to end. The social climate was ripe for upheaval. To watch Channel Five’s interpretation of both revolutions (in February and October of 1917), featuring recreated scenes and colorized historical footage, click on the links (in their order of appearance) in the first sentence of this chapter.


  • Sacagawea (Sacajawea) - Reunited with Brother: In one of the most astonishing episodes of her journey with Lewis and Clark (and their Corps of Discovery exploration), the Shoshone interpreter Sacagawea (who had previously been kidnapped by the Mandan) was reunited with her brother, Cameahwait. To learn how that reunion helped the expedition, click on “Sacajawea’s reaction,” in the second paragraph.


  • Saturn - Titan, Moon of the Ringed Planet: Following its seven-year journey, the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft - a cooperative venture between three space agencies (American, European and Italian), with help from seventeen countries - arrived in Saturn’s “neighborhood.” The Huygens probe explored Titan, Saturn’s largest moon. To see what the probe saw, click on “images of Titan” (in the fifth paragraph).


  • School - in Victorian Britain: What was attending school like in Victorian Britain? To find out, click on "governesses" in the second paragraph. When you are at the BBC link, select "Learning" in the "School" section. When you arrive at the next page, click on the projector to watch the movie.


  • Sea Creatures - Liopleurodon: Likely the biggest sea predator of all time, the giant Liopleurodon - were it still alive - would dwarf a sperm whale. Check out a video clip of this enormous creature by clicking on "monstrous mouth," in the last paragraph.


  • Secret Army - The Resistors of WWII: Throughout Europe, during World War II, people resisted Hitler and his Nazis. "Meet" some of them, and hear their stories, by clicking on "war was declared" in the fourth paragraph. When you get to the "World War Two Movies" link, click on "Launch the Animation," then select "The Secret Army."


  • Sepoy Uprising - India's First War of Independence: In 1857, locals rebelled against the power of the East India Company and British rule in their land. To see a recreation of events, click on “Sepoy Mutiny” in the fourth paragraph.


  • September 11 - Jules Naudet and his Film: In 2001, Gedeon Naudet, and his brother Jules, were working on a documentary about New York City firefighters. On the morning of September 11, Jules went to the scene of a gas leak, in the city, to film the men called to investigate. Hearing a plane overhead, Jules turned his camera skyward, capturing the first attack of 9-11. See an interview with him by clicking on “Jules Naudet filmed,” in the second paragraph. Advance the cursor to 21:04.


  • September 11 - North Tower Struck: On September 11, 2001, hijackers commandeered an airliner and flew it into the North Tower of New York City's World Trade Center. To see the striking plane, and the resulting catastrophic fire, click on "struck" in the second paragraph.


  • September 11 - Pentagon: When American Airlines Flight 77 hit the Pentagon, even reporters inside the building weren’t sure what was happening. Watch one of the first reports by clicking on “no idea” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • September 11 - South Tower Struck: Soon after the North Tower was damaged, another group of hijackers smashed a second plane into the South Tower of the World Trade Center. Reporters describing the first event had no idea their viewers actually saw the second plane ram into the building. Click on "watching," in the third paragraph.


  • September 11 - Summary of Events: Four separate airplanes were hijacked on the morning of September 11, 2001. See a summary of what happened with each of those planes by clicking on "worst attack" in the last paragraph.


  • September 11 - Twin Towers Collapse: At 10:05 EDT, the South Tower (struck by the second plane) collapsed. Twenty-four minutes later, the North Tower also fell. Click on "collapsed" in the second paragraph.


  • September 11 - Victim Memorial: With Leonard Slatkin conducting, the BBC Symphony Orchestra plays Samuel Barber’s Adagio for Strings as a memorial to the victims of September 11. To watch, click on “from her people” (in the second paragraph).


  • Shakespeare, William - Henry V: Memorializing the British victory (over the French) at the famous battle of Agincourt, Shakespeare celebrated Henry V and the English longbow. To see sections of Kenneth Branagh’s interpretation, click on the following words in the second paragraph: words, deeds, English troops and longbowmen.


  • Sharks - Up Close: How many teeth does a Great White have? What is it like to swim with a whale shark? Find out by clicking "on film" in the last paragraph. When you get to the link - at the Science Museum of Minnesota - select "Sharks" at the bottom of the page. After that, select "Video Clip" just above the moving images.


  • Silent Movies and Theodore Roosevelt: Because "TR" loved playing to the camera, the U.S. Library of Congress has a "major visual record of the first decades of the twentieth century. The collection contains rare early motion picture footage, some of which is believed to be unique." Check it out by clicking on "silent movies" in the eighth paragraph.


  • Silk Road - Trading with China: The misery of people forced to build, and defend, China’s Great Wall produced at least one major benefit. The wall provided a safer place for traveling caravans (laden with silk, furs, pottery and rhubarb - a plant then-unknown in the West but highly prized for medicinal purposes) to export goods and return with imported gold, ivory and coral. Ideas and inventions - like the magnetic compass (from China) and religion (from the West) - also traversed the Silk Road. To learn what it was like to travel through deserts plagued with bandits and other inhospitable conditions, click on “Silk Road” (in the eighth paragraph).


  • Silkworms - Gobbling Mulberry Leaves: Ancient chronicles say that China’s First Emperor swallowed up kingdoms the way a silkworm devours a mulberry leaf. To understand that description, watch silkworms in action by clicking on “silkworm devours a mulberry leaf” (in the third paragraph).


  • Six Day War - 1967 Battle for Jerusalem: Nineteen years after the formation of the modern Jewish state, Israel fought a war with her neighbors. The results of that six-day battle in June, of 1967, still reverberate. To watch a documentary featuring historical footage and recreated scenes, click on "that war" in the last paragraph.


  • Skull of Doom - Analysis by Experts: One of the most famous crystal skulls in the world, the Skull of Doom (also known as the Mitchell-Hedges skull) remains a mystery. Click on “historic trip,” in the sixth paragraph, to see it and learn what experts at the British Museum discovered about it.


  • Slave-Trade Ends - First National Public Relations Campaign: As William Wilberforce and other abolitionists worked to abolish the British slave-trade, they mounted a significant grass-roots effort to change the law. Historians refer to it as the first national public-relations campaign. Click on "change the mind," in the next-to-last paragraph, to learn more.


  • Snow Leopard - Rare Footage: To see a snow leopard stalking her prey in the Himalayas, click on “most beautiful” (in the middle of the third paragraph).


  • Solzhenitsyn, Alexander - Nobel Laureate: At age eighty-eight, the anti-Soviet writer was awarded high honors by the Russian government. Although he had refused to accept the award from Boris Yeltsin, he accepted it from Vladimir Putin. To see what happened, click on “Solzhenitsyn,” in the fourth paragraph.


  • Somme - Deadly WWI Battle: Fighting in France intensified during the Battle of the Somme. See these war-movie clips, from the Imperial War Museum and the British National Archives, by clicking on "churned out corpses" in the second quote.


  • Spiders - Attaching Spirals: How does a spider attach a sticky spiral to its web? Would it surprise you to learn that a spider's "glue" works faster than industrially produced glue? To watch a spider in action, click on "attaching" in the second bullet.


  • Spiders - Spinning a Web: Have you ever watched spiders spinning their webs? Ever wonder how they get everything to stick together? To see a spider create a web, click on "building a section" in the first bullet.


  • Spiders - Using Glue: What does a spider do when it applies glue to its web strands? Take a look by clicking on "sticky-spiral loop" in the third bullet.


  • Spitzer Space Telescope - How it Sees Infrared Light: The Spitzer sees infrared light which makes visible what is invisible to the human eye. How does it work? To find out, click on “Spitzer Space Telescope” (in the next-to-last paragraph).


  • Spitzer Space Telescope - Seeing the Infrared Universe: Revealing what had once seemed hidden, the orbiting Spitzer Space Telescope sends amazing pictures back to Earth. Compare how it “fills in” previously seen images by clicking on “particular sensitivity” (in the next-to-last paragraph). When the link is loaded, select “Flash feature” to watch NASA’s video.


  • Sputnik - The First Satellite: The Soviet Union shocked everyone when it launched the world’s first satellite. Discover how they achieved their space-race goal by watching an interview with one of Sputnik’s developers. (Click on “a major coup” in the first paragraph.)


  • Stalin, Joseph - Forced Labor Camps: To help rebuild the country, Joseph Stalin and his government sent millions of people to forced labor camps. Click on the links for “Joseph Stalin,” in the first paragraph, to see historical footage coupled with former prisoner interviews.


  • Stalin, Joseph - Purges: Not long after he became leader of the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin began a series of purges. Terror filled the land as people turned against each other. To discover what happened, click on “cagey politician” (in the fifth paragraph).


  • Stalin, Joseph - Soviet Union Leader: The man who succeeded Vladimir Lenin was a man of contradictions. Although brutally oppressive when protecting his own power base, he led his country to victory against Germany in World War II. To learn more about him, click on “He liked” in the last paragraph.


  • Stanton, Elizabeth Cady - Joins with Susan B. Anthony: Anthony’s speaking and organizational skills, coupled with Stanton’s intellectual approach, made the pair a kind of “odd couple” as they worked for women’s rights. Click on “Susan B. Anthony,” in the fourth paragraph, to see how they tackled the issues.


  • Stegosaurus - Walking with Dinosaurs: Remains of this plant-eating Jurassic dinosaur have been found throughout the world. Click on “Stegosaurus,” in the fourth paragraph, to see how it appears in the BBC’s Walking with Dinosaurs.


  • Stonehenge - How it was Built: To watch a recreation of how the massive stones of Britain’s famous monument might have reached their destination, click on “fascinating subjects,” in the first bullet.


  • Stonehenge - Why was it Built? The people who created Britain’s monument, on the Salisbury Plain, are still unknown. They, together with the purpose of Stonehenge, remain two of the ancient world’s greatest mysteries. To see how the stones may have been raised, to form a circle, click on “is” and “located” (in the third-to-last paragraph).


  • Supernova - Exploding: Scientists believe that massive stars can die. When that happens, a star has a “death explosion” and is called a “supernova.” To see how that may appear, click on “exploding,” in the fourth paragraph.


  • Sutton Hoo - Anglo-Saxon Treasures: In 1939, not long before the second world war began in Europe, remnants of an Anglo-Saxon burial ship were discovered at Sutton Hoo. The excavation’s original records were destroyed during the war, but pictures taken by two amateur photographers survive. To learn more about the ship, and its archeological value, click on “alliterative style” in the fifth bullet.


  • Telescopes - How They Work: With a telescope, we can see wonders in the sky. But ... how does a telescope actually work? To discover the answer, click on “a reflecting telescope” (in the sixth paragraph).


  • Tenerife - Scene of Deadliest Aircraft Accident: In the spring of 1977, the Los Rodeos airport on Tenerife Island had only one runway. It became the scene of the world’s deadliest aircraft accident. To learn about the background of the disaster, click on “that spring day” in the first paragraph.


  • Terra Cotta Soldiers - Wonder of the Ancient World: In 1974, while digging a well, Chinese farmers uncovered one of the most exciting archeological finds of the twentieth century. Thousands of terra cotta soldiers were buried near the mausoleum of China’s First Emperor. Click on “word of one man,” in the last paragraph, to see video clips of the site and the soldiers.


  • Titanic - Faulty Rivet Theory: Following an intensive study of forty-eight recovered rivets from Titanic’s bow, experts believe those components were made of low-grade iron. Placed under pressure, they could quickly give way. As water from the North Atlantic poured into the ship, the rivets split apart “like a zipper.” Five forward compartments flooded, dooming the ship. Click on “not with five,” in the third paragraph, to see an interview with the experts and watch an animation of what may have happened.


  • Titanic - Last Surviving Passenger: Millvina Dean is the last surviving passenger of the Titanic’s maiden voyage. To watch an interview with her, click on “rescued passengers” (in the last paragraph).


  • Titanic - Sinking: Not the only famous ship to sink during the first decades of the twentieth century, Titanic is the most well known. Compare her to other doomed ships of her era by clicking on “she sank” (in the fourth paragraph).


  • Titanic - Structural Issues and Sinking: Were there structural or engineering issues which caused Titanic to sink before rescue ships could reach her? Uncover possible scenarios by watching a naval architect explain his examination of the wreckage (in the first paragraph).


  • Titanic - Wreckage Inspection: Where is Titanic now? What does she look like? Watch an interview with a cinematographer, who has filmed the wreckage at least eleven times, by clicking on “what’s left” (in the second paragraph).


  • Tolerance - in Amsterdam: When Spanish and Portugese Jews fled the Inquisition in their own countries, they went to a place long known for its tolerance: the Dutch city of Amsterdam. By the seventeenth century, Jews were living peacefully in the city to which Anne Frank's father would also move his family. Click on "ghettoes" in the third chapter of this story, second bullet, to watch a video clip about "tolerant Amsterdam."


  • Trenches of WWI - Desperate Stories: What was life like in the French trenches of World War I? Watch any, or all, of these fourteen movies from the British National Archives by clicking on "horrors" in the second paragraph.


  • Trenches of WWI - Horrific Surroundings: War is miserable, but the men who lived in trenches at the western front, during WWI, routinely experienced day-to-day conditions which defy all imagination. To learn more, click on "at war" in the first paragraph. Scroll down halfway to "The Human Experience." After you click on "World War One Movies," launch the animation. After it loads, click on "Life in the Trenches." There are several parts to this movie, so be patient as each section loads.


  • T. rex - Making a Kill: To feed her babies, a mother Tyrannosaurus had to find, and kill, her prey. Click on “meat-eating creature,” in the second paragraph, to see a recreation of how that might have happened. The clip is from the BBC’s Walking with Dinosaurs.


  • Trinity Test, Atomic-Bomb Recreation: On the 16th of July, 1945, the United States tested an atomic bomb. To see a recreation of that event, click on "scientists witnessed" in the fifth paragraph.


  • Trojan War - Real or Fiction: Did the Trojan War actually take place during the Late Bronze Age? If so, was it fought because of love (between Helen and Paris) or due to other reasons? Startling new evidence provides clues to these age-old questions. Take a look by clicking on “quest,” “real place” and “Troy,” in the second paragraph.


  • Troy - Ancient City Uncovered: Until the later part of the nineteenth century, no one could be sure whether the place which Homer immortalized had ever really existed. Today there is little doubt, as evidenced in a BBC documentary on the subject. To watch key segments, click on the second-paragraph links (in their order of appearance).


  • Tutankhamun - His Tomb and Curse: Soon after the young pharaoh’s tomb was rediscovered in 1922, some “spooky” things happened. To learn about them, and to see King Tut’s tomb, click on “rediscovered” (in the last paragraph).


  • U-Boats - Destruction in the Atlantic: On the third of September, 1939, Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain told the British people that their country was at war with Germany. Hours later, a German U-boat torpedoed the Athenia, sinking the British passenger ship. What were U-boats? How did they operate? To learn more, click on “Lemp’s ship,” in the first paragraph.


  • U-Boats - Losses: Hunting in packs, during the first part of World War II, U-boats terrified people and disrupted the flow of goods and war materiel to Britain. After the spring of 1943, as technology changed, they became less important as a means of destroying convoys. Loss of men and equipment, due to U-boats, was staggering. Explore more by clicking on “U-boats,” in the first paragraph.


  • UFOs - Manmade or Alien: The U.S. government has commissioned aircraft which look like flying saucers. Is that what people see, when they report UFOs, or is something else going on? Click on “look like flying saucers,” in the next-to-last paragraph, to find out more.


  • UFOs - Reality versus Fantasy: Do unidentified flying objects exist? If they did, would the government disclose information about them? To learn more, click on “still investigating,” near the end of the seventh paragraph.


  • Van Gogh, Vincent - Starry Night: Although the famous Dutch artist could not sell paintings during his life time, his masterpieces are highly collectible now. To see some of them, combined with music composed in his honor, click on “Today’s world,” in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Victorian Britain - What was Life Like?: Differences between social classes - and the resulting lifestyle for children - were profound during Queen Victoria's long reign. But class mattered little if a person wished to swim in the sea. So no one could be seen in swimming suits, a "bathing machine" would carry the swimmer into the sea. You don't believe it? Check it out by clicking on "governesses" in the second paragraph. When you are at the BBC link, select "Learning" in the "Play" section. When you arrive at the next page, click on the projector to watch the movie.


  • Viking Stories: Norsemen who sailed their ships to other lands - where they terrified local people and stole their treasures - were called vikingur (meaning “hit and run raider”). To see a video clip, click on “the Vikings” in the second-to-last paragraph. To learn whether the Vikings actually had settlements in Britain, click on “new settlement” in the second paragraph.


  • Vivaldi, Antonio - Mandolin Concerto, 1st Movement: To hear a clip of Vivaldi’s famous concerto, starring the mandolin, click on “mandolin’s tonal sound” (in the second paragraph).


  • Vesuvius Destroys Pompeii - Pliny’s Account: When Vesuvius erupted in 79 A.D., it destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum. In a letter to the Roman historian Tacitus, 17-year-old Pliny the Younger describes what he saw. Today, scientists use his name to describe a “Plinian event” and a “Plinian column.” Click on “pine tree,” in the next-to-last paragraph, to see a video recreating what he observed that August day.


  • Volcanoes - Predicting Eruptions and Lava Flows: Is it possible to predict when volcanoes will erupt? What does flowing lava look like - up close and personal? To learn more about these issues, and to see what happens when hot magma meets the sea, click on “those zones” in the first paragraph. Be sure to watch both Discovery-Channel videos (which ultimately follow each other).


  • Volcanoes - Video Stories: From the ruins of Pompeii, where Vesuvius buried people with ten feet of ash (dropping them as they fled or inundating them at home or work) to oceans (where underwater volcanoes exist) to Hawaii (where non-stop eruptions of Kilauea have added real estate to the Big Island since 1983), watch what happens when volcanoes erupt. Click on “Nothing standing,” in the last paragraph, to view one (or all nine) of these Discovery-Channel volcano videos.


  • Volcanoes - Why They Erupt: To watch why volcanoes erupt, thereby causing massive damage, click on “volcano” in the sixth paragraph.


  • Warsaw Ghetto - Daily Life: When Poland fell, in 1939, the Nazis walled-off a section of Warsaw, creating separate living space - referred to as a ghetto - for Jews. Teeming with people, the Warsaw ghetto had heavily controlled entrance points - before it was sealed-off altogether. To see a movie of life in the ghetto, click on "surrendered" in the third paragraph. When you get to the link - at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum - scroll down 80% until you see "Daily life in the Warsaw ghetto." Click on the picture to view the historical film footage.


  • Warsaw - Tale of a City: German troops invaded Warsaw in September of 1939. The city fell on September 28th. For years thereafter, Hitler's troops occupied the city. Underground Polish film makers recorded what life was like during that time. The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum features scenes from their film Tale of a City. To view it, click on "surrendered" in the third paragraph. When you get to the link, scroll down 80% until you see "Daily life in the Warsaw ghetto." Click on the picture which takes you to historical film footage. Along the top of the page, you will see "Fall of Warsaw." Follow that link to view the film clip.


  • Waterfalls, Jiuzhaigou - Nine Village Fairyland: UNESCO has included the scenic area of Jiuzhaigou on its list of World Heritage sites. The fifty-kilometer valley has more than one hundred lakes, but its star attractions are gorgeous waterfalls. Take a look by clicking on “waterfalls” (in the third paragraph).


  • Waterloo - Battle of: Napoleon Bonaparte and his Grand Army were defeated by a coalition of forces led by Arthur Wellesley (the first Duke of Wellington) and Gebhard von Blücher (of Prussia). See highlights of the battle by clicking on “ended forever” (in the fifth paragraph).


  • Waterloo - Casualties: Napoleon’s gamble in Belgium caused huge casualties. To learn about the end of the fighting, and the final tally of losses, click on “end of the battle” (in the last paragraph).


  • Weapons of Mass Destruction, Tests of: Following WWII, the American government conducted peace-time tests of nuclear weapons. Watch clips from various test films, including that of "Operation Buster-Jangle," by clicking on "continued to test," in the next-to-last paragraph.


  • Wesley, John - Itinerant Preacher: Founder of Methodism, this Oxford-educated Anglican priest traveled about five thousand miles a year on horseback. A social reformer, he preached to the working class and opposed slavery. Click “Go on,” in the lead quote, to watch a video clip about his later years.


  • Wesley, John - On American Slavery: John Wesley traveled to America during the eighteenth century and was appalled at slavery in the colonies. Returning to Britain, he underwent a conversion. Thereafter, he influenced men like William Wilberforce who wanted to abolish the slave trade. To learn about Wesley’s time in America, click on “be not weary” in the lead quote.


  • Whales - Resisting Polar Bears: In the Arctic, a hungry polar bear attempts to kill a whale. Click on “Arctic waters” and “whales,” in the tenth paragraph, to see who prevails.


  • Women's Rights - Public Speaking Disallowed: In the nineteenth century, women suffragists - like Susan Anthony - were sometimes allowed to attend male-dominated meetings (such as political conventions) but were not allowed to address attendees. Learn about those restrictions by clicking on “but no voice.”


  • World War One - Casualties: Stories of injuries and shell shock in the first world war helped to make the staggering number of casualties even more incomprehensible. To learn about it, click on "at war" in the first paragraph. Scroll down halfway to "The Human Experience." After you click on "World War One Movies," launch the animation. After it loads, click on "injuries and shell shock."


  • World War One - Precipitating Cause: While visiting Sarajevo on the 28th of June, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip. This fatality was the precipitating cause of World War One. Click on the links for “Their shocking deaths,” in the second paragraph, to see historical footage and recreated events.


  • Zeus, Statue at Olympia - Ancient World Wonder: In the fifth century, B.C., a Greek sculptor named Phidias created a great statue of Zeus. A wonder of the ancient world, it stood forty feet high and was made of gold and ivory. Although the statue itself was destroyed long ago, scholars have recreated where it was located - and what Olympia must have looked like during its heyday. To check it out, click on “great statue of Zeus” (in the seventh bullet).